File Name: map of divided kingdoms of israel and judah .zip
- Charts of the Kings of Israel and Judah
- Ancient Jewish History: The Two Kingdoms
- Judah & Israel: A Divided Monarchy
- Background Information to the Divided Kingdom
Bible History Online. After David and Solomon, the fame and fortunes of Israel went downhill. The nation rebelled against God and his laws.
Charts of the Kings of Israel and Judah
Several epigraphic corpora and some isolated inscriptions from Southern Levant may be considered as documents reflecting accounting procedures.
This paper is a survey of such documents from the kingdoms of Israel and Judah in the period between ca. The emerging picture is fragmentary and uneven, which is related to two main reasons: apparently most of the documentation was kept on papyrus which usually does not survive in this region; the kingdom of Israel ceased to exist after ca. In the course of the research some of the corpora have been analyzed according to several, sometimes conflicting theories.
Given the obvious limitations related to scarcity of the written sources from the Southern Levant in this period ca.
There are two main bodies of textual evidence for the given place and period: the text of the Hebrew Bible and the epigraphy. Benzion Barlev provides an interesting attempt to explain one of the texts in the Bible related to the sphere of accounting Ex 1. A number of studies are dedicated to the issue of taxation in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah based on biblical texts 2.
The purpose of the present paper is to make a survey of the epigraphic documents related to accounting practices in a broader sense from Southern Levant in the first half of the first millennium BCE 3. This study is not exhaustive: we have chosen the most important epigraphic corpora and some isolated documents relevant for the topic.
We also do not discuss many details pertinent to the analysis of the documents, for which see references to literature. Special attention is given to Samaria ostraca, because their interpretation caused much controversy and because they were often used as models discussing other corpora and documents from Ancient Israel.
The sources are reviewed in the chronological order of their discovery, because in some instances the new epigraphic data were interpreted in the light of former discoveries and their interpretations. One of the main peculiarities of the economic and other types of documentation in this region within the said period is that the coverage of different types of accounting by the available sources would be necessarily incomplete. But it would be incomplete not only in the general sense, which is natural for historical sources of antiquity.
The specific problem here is related to the fact that some considerable part of documentation is lost forever for environmental reasons. It is common knowledge that in Palestine papyrus and skin do not survive or almost do not survive into the modern period 4. What does it mean for the history of the accounting? As the analysis of epigraphic data from Ancient Israel shows, some part of documentation was most probably made on papyrus.
Two examples from scholarly discussion of epigraphic documents may illustrate this point. The ostraca, after being registered in the overall document, were discarded, thrown away 6. One of the Aramaic ostraca from Arad No. This entails that some important part of documentation from Israel is lost for us because it was created on perishable material.
This situation is different from that in contemporaneous Syria and Mesopotamia, where longer documents could be compiled in much more enduring cuneiform. If we take the sources from the palace of Samaria, the capital city of the Kingdom of Israel, its life and institutions for the period ca. If we compare these data from Samaria with the documentation of the palace of Ugarit, we shall see that the sources in Ugarit reveal many aspects of economic and administrative activity 9 :.
The documents of the gittu -estates units of royal economy ;. The only viable explanation of this gap would be that most of the documentation in Samaria was written on papyrus. These handles are believed to belong to one of the types of earthenware vessels with four handles of average capacity 45,33 l.
The first specimens of this type were discovered in by Charles Warren during excavations in Jerusalem. At the moment there are more than lmlk jar-handles known, ca. Because some of the vessels had stamps on more than one handle, it is difficult to assess, how many vessels are testified by the above figures.
A lmlk impression on a jar handle. The three geographical names on these stamps are identified almost with certainty as Hebron, Sokho and Ziph. The fourth name is difficult to relate to any place known in Judah. Though the dates of these inscriptions are debated, most would agree that they come from the period between the mid VIII th century to BCE.
Recently an alternative view was advanced that the practice of lmlk stamps persisted several decades after BCE One of the most popular interpretations was offered in by Charles Clermont-Ganneau, who came to the conclusion, that lmlk jars were used for products which were delivered regularly to the royal storehouses located in the four chief cities of the kingdom Consequently, the products oil, wine or grain are the tributes or taxes in kind collected by royal administration. Charles Clermont-Ganneau also supposed that the lmlk impressions were made on jars before baking in royal manufactories; so, these jars were at the onset intended to be standard delivery capacities controlled by the royal administration.
The four cities are not only storage centers, they are rather redistributive centers. According to this hypothesis, the jars with lmlk impressions were manufactured in one center and then sent to the four administrative districts. In each of the four towns the royal jars were filled with products and sent to fortified cities in these districts. All this was done under the king Hezekiah as part of the planned preparations for war with Assyria.
On the other hand, the products for these preparations were to be gathered by all possible means, including taxes and tithes They also suggest that there is a certain administrative system behind lmlk stamp impressions. This administrative system was created to answer demands of the Assyrian administration when Judah became a vassal kingdom of Assyria in the last quarter of VIII c.
In order to pay the tribute to Assyria, the standardized mass-production of pottery was established. It facilitated storage and transportation of products under royal centralized control During the work of the Harvard expedition on the site of Samaria arab.
Reisner ostraca with alphabetic inscriptions were found Among them 25 items are illegible Most of the ostraca have the date according to the reign of an unnamed king. The dates are 9 th , 10 th and 15 th year of a king. Ivan Kaufman notes, that ostraca from different years were found together; that means that they were probably kept together The content of the inscriptions also points to the fact that they constitute a sort of unified archive.
A Samaria ostracon no. In Reisner, G. Text, Cambridge MA, , p. After that usually a commodity wine or olive oil and its quantity is stated. Only two ostraca, no. Quite often a text may be expanded or shortened. Several ostraca omit commodity, but it is supposed that a commodity was implied by the context of the transaction. Some authors single out the group of ostraca from the year 15, which are 24 in number. Their characteristic traits are: the absence of any product, be it wine or olive oil; additional geographical name with the preposition m -, which is understood as a clan name; an additional personal name without any preposition In the case of no.
If we follow this interpretation, which we can call the simplest for reasons to be seen further, there arise some questions: Who are the persons receiving wine or oil? What is the economic reality behind these texts? The ostraca themselves were understood as dockets attached to the product by its sender or as accompanying documents Begleitschreiben Thus, the documents were written not in the city Samaria, but in the vineyards and olive groves belonging to the king.
The final recipient, or beneficiary, of these products was the king of Israel, but the products were not sent as tax, as it was claimed by many authors before and after Martin Noth. Although the theory was quite popular until the s, there were many critical remarks from the proponents of other theories Now, the persons referred to by the names after preposition l - l -men , are not recipients, but senders, or owners of the estates.
The names without preposition l - refer to sub-tenants or associates of the land owners. The ostraca are receipts written in Samaria. One point was common for theories of Noth and Yadin: the final beneficiary of the transaction is the king according to both interpretations. The products came to the noblemen from their estates which were granted to them by the king.
Rainey compared this situation with the system of royal land grants which existed in Ugarit and which was reliably documented by many written sources. Another important point was that the ostraca were written in Samaria, but not as receipts: they were used as scratch-pad notations, which were discarded after the information from them was copied on a ledger a register , probably made of papyrus Only one point by Cross is different, because according to him the final recipients of tax shipments are lords themselves, not king These ostraca, according to him, are not tax-receipts, they are military conscription dockets.
The personal names without a preposition are the names of young men sent by the clans to the capital to serve as warriors. In other words, the transaction involved rather symbolic than economic sense: it deals with the exchange of loyalty and support from the part of local leader for the opportunity to take part in the consumption of elite products Later six more inscriptions of the same type were added to the corpus At the same place were found 83 lmlk jar stamps and some other inscriptions.
This interpretation is corroborated by the unique no. This reading is far from being universally accepted, because the reading and the meaning of the word gdr was variously contested. First, some authors including Pritchard himself at the beginning of his research read gdd instead of gdr , which would probably be a personal name Since it was generally assumed that these jars were destined to keep wine, it was suggested that these inscriptions are related to the wine production industry at Gibeon.
The personal names on the inscriptions would then refer to the individual owners of the vineyards. The purpose of the inscriptions would be either a trade-mark, or an address to return the used jar to its owner Rainey was against the view that the discussed inscriptions from Gibeon reflect the economic life of some private institution.
In his view the wine-collecting installation at Gibeon was part of the royal property included into the system of land grants comparable to the one which existed in Ugarit The crucial argument was that Gibeon jar handles were discovered in the same stratum as lmlk seal impressions Thus, the jars with inscribed handles went to individuals, the jars with lmlk handles went to the king It is probably instructive to follow the view of I.
Kaufman, who rightly compares Gibeon jar handles with other jar labels from Israel and Egypt, which bear names of producers The text is dated to the end of VIII c. BCE on palaeographic grounds.
Ancient Jewish History: The Two Kingdoms
Rehoboam then traveled north to Shechem to lay his claim to the throne of Israel as well. According to 1 Kings , Solomon imposed corvee , or conscript labor, only on the foreign, non-Israelite population, while the Israelites involved in his work projects served as overseers and officers 1 Kings Solomon placed him in charge of the corvee labor of the House of Joseph—that is, the conscript labor battalions of the territories of the half-tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh 1 Kings E , seems to have made common cause with Israel and Judah against the Philistines. According to the account in I Kings 12, he exercised a leadership role in the parley at Shechem.
The book tells of the murmuring and rebellion of God's people and of their subsequent judgment. And nowhere in the Bible are God's initiative and control expressed more clearly and pervasively than in the book of the prophet Ezekiel. To this work he contributed commentaries on all the books from Genesis through Esther, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the minor prophets. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Bible: The Old Testament and what it means. Browse our selection of Old Testament studies for individuals and groups now. This is the second "Pastoral Epistle. The three books of the Protestant Apocrypha that are not accepted by Catholics are Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh.
Before Israel had even entered the promised land, Moses prophetically counseled them about establishing kings to rule over them. The instructions were clear: if the people ever chose to have a king, they must select someone who met certain criteria. One who would not lead Israel back to Egypt back to their worldly ways. One who kept the statutes of God see Deuteronomy —20 ; Mosiah ; In the days of the prophet Samuel, the people rejected the rule of the judges and sought for a king to be their ruler. They forgot, however, what the Lord had directed them centuries before. Samuel warned them of the consequences of having a king such as this.
Judah & Israel: A Divided Monarchy
The Hebrew Bible describes David and Solomon successfully founding the nation of Israel, establishing rule by a single king in Jerusalem, making the Jerusalem temple the central place of Yahwistic worship, and expanding national borders beyond the traditional tribal territories. Although there is debate about the historicity of the biblical account of this period, this era of the united monarchy is understood by most scholars to have encompassed much of the 10th century B. Archaeological excavations have uncovered elaborate building projects, indicating strong centralized governance, at sites from this period including Jerusalem, Gezer, Megiddo, and Hazor.
According to the Bible, King David reigned over a large territory and his son Solomon over an even larger one. After the death of King Solomon, the kingdom was divided in two. The southern kingdom consisted only of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin and thus became the kingdom of Judah, with Jerusalem as its capital. The northern kingdom consisted of the remaining tribes and was called Israel.
The experiment with the opulence and power of the great eastern kingdoms had ended in disaster for Israel. King Solomon created the wealthiest and most powerful central government the Hebrews would ever see, but he did so at an impossibly high cost. Land was given away to pay for his extravagances and people were sent into forced labor into Tyre in the north.
Background Information to the Divided Kingdom
- Только цифровой. Нам нужно число. Он нас надул.
Однако звук повторился, на этот раз громче. Явный звук шагов на верхней площадке. Хейл в ужасе тотчас понял свою ошибку. Стратмор находится на верхней площадке, у меня за спиной. Отчаянным движением он развернул Сьюзан так, чтобы она оказалась выше его, и начал спускаться.
Что. - Я вызываю агентов безопасности. - Нет, коммандер! - вскрикнула Сьюзан. - Нет. Хейл сжал ее горло. - Если вы вызовете службу безопасности, она умрет.
Получалось, что АНБ фактически получило возможность вскрывать всю почту и затем пересылать ее без какого-либо уведомления. Это было все равно что установить жучки во все телефонные аппараты на земле. Стратмор попытался убедить Танкадо, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ - это орудие охраны правопорядка, но безуспешно: Танкадо продолжал настаивать на том, что это грубейшее нарушение гражданских прав. Он немедленно уволился и сразу же нарушил Кодекс секретности АНБ, попытавшись вступить в контакт с Фондом электронных границ. Танкадо решил потрясти мир рассказом о секретной машине, способной установить тотальный правительственный контроль над пользователями компьютеров по всему миру.
Мидж… пошли. Это личный кабинет директора. - Это где-то здесь, - пробормотала она, вглядываясь в текст.
Я видел алгоритм. Уверяю вас, он стоит этих денег. Тут все без обмана.
Он отбросил бесполезный мотоцикл и пустился бежать со всех ног. К несчастью для Беккера, вместо неуклюжего такси Халохот обрел под ногами твердую почву. Спокойно подняв пистолет, он выстрелил. Пуля задела Беккера в бок, когда он уже почти обогнул угол здания. Он почувствовал это лишь после того, как сделал пять или шесть шагов.