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Ends and Means
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Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. WAR 89 X. From Isaiah to Karl Marx the prophets have spoken with one voice. In the Golden Age to which they look forward there will be liberty, peace, justice and brotherly love. Not so with regard to the roads which lead to that goal. Here unanimity and certainty give place to utter confusion, to the clash of contradictory opinions, dogmatically held and acted upon with the violence of fanaticism.
There are some who believe and it is a very popular belief at the present time that the royal road to a better world is the road of economic reform. For some, the short cut to Utopia is military conquest and the hegemony of one particular nation; for others, it is armed revolution and the dictatorship of a particular class. All these think mainly in terms of social machinery and large-scale organiza- tion.
There are others, however, who approach the problem from the opposite end, and believe that desirable social changes can be brought about most effectively by changing the individuals who compose society. There must be, they say, a return to religion.
Unhappily, they cannot agree on the religion to which the return should be made. At this point it becomes necessary to say something about that ideal individual into whom the changers of heart desire to transform themselves and others. Every age and class has had its ideal. The ruling classes in Greece idealized the magnanimous man, a sort of scholar- and-gentleman. Kshatriyas in early India and feudal nobles in mediaeval Europe held up the ideal of the chivalrous man. The honnete homme makes his appearance as the ideal of seventeenth-century gentlemen; the philosophe, as the ideal of their descendants in the eighteenth century.
The nineteenth century idealized the respectable man. The twentieth has already witnessed the rise and fall of the liberal man and the emergence of the sheep-like social man and the god-like Leader. Among this bewildering multiplicity of ideals which shall we choose? The answer is that we shall choose none. For it is clear that each one of these contradictory ideals is the fruit of particular social circumstances. To some extent, of course, this is true of every thought and aspiration that has ever been formulated.
Some thoughts and aspirations, however, are manifestly less dependent on particular social circumstances than others. And here a significant fact emerges : all the ideals of human behaviour formulated by those who have been most successful in freeing themselves from the prejudices of their time and place are singularly alike. Such insight is a gift, inherent in the individual; but, though inherent, it cannot manifest itself completely except where certain conditions are fulfilled.
The principal pre-condition of insight is, precisely, the practice of dis- interested virtues. To some extent critical intellect is also a liberating force. But the way in which intellect is used depends upon the will. Where the will is not dis- interested, the intellect tends to be used outside the non-human fields of technology, science or pure mathe- matics merely as an instrument for the rationalization of passion and prejudice, the justification of self-interest.
That is why so few even of die acutest philosophers have succeeded in liberating themselves completely from the narrow prison of their age and country. It is seldom indeed that they achieve as much freedom as the mystics and the founders of religion.
The most nearly free men have always been those who combined virtue with insight. Now, among these freest of human beings there has been, for the last eighty or ninety generations, substantial agreement in regard to the ideal individual.
The enslaved have held up for admiration now this model of a man, now that; but at all times and in all places, the free have spoken with only one voice. It is difficult to find a single word that will adequately describe the ideal man of the free philosophers, the mystics, the founders of religions.
The ideal man is the non-attached man. Non- attached to his bodily sensations and lusts. Non-attached to his craving for power and possessions. Non-attached to the objects of these various desires. Non-attached to his anger and hatred; non-attached to his exclusive loves. Non- attached even to science, art, speculation, philanthropy. Yes, non-attached even to these.
Greater and more significant than even the best things that this world has to offer. Of the nature of this ultimate reality I shall speak in the last chapters of this book.
All that I need do in this place is to point out that the ethic of non-attachment has always been correlated with cosmologies that affirm the existence of a spiritual reality underlying the phenomenal world and im- parting to it whatever value or significance it possesses.
Non-attachment is negative only in name. The practice of non-attachment entails the practice of all the virtues. It entails the practice of charity, for example; for there are no more fatal impediments than anger even 'righteous indignation 9 and cold-blooded malice to the identification of the self with the immanent and transcendent more-than- self.
It entails the practice of courage; for fear is a painful? Fear is negative sensuality, just as sloth is negative malice. It entails the cultivation of intelligence; for insensitive stupidity is a main root of all the other vices.
It entails the practice of generosity and disinterestedness; for avarice and the love of possessions constrain their victim to equate themselves with mere things. And so on. It is unnecessary any further to labour the point, sufficiently obvious to anyone who chooses to think about the matter, that non-attachment imposes upon those who would practise it the adoption of an intensely positive attitude towards the world.
It is at the very heart of the teachings of the Buddha. For the Chinese the doctrine is formulated by Lao Tsu. A little later, in Greece, the ideal of non-attachment is proclaimed, albeit with a certain pharisaic priggishness, by the Stoics. What- ever may have been the aberrations of organized Chris- tianity and they range from extravagant asceticism to the most brutally cynical forms of realpolitik there has been no lack of Christian philosophers to reaffirm the ideal of non-attachment.
Meanwhile, moralists outside the Christian tradition have affirmed the need for non-attachment no less insistently than the Christians. The non-attached man is one who, in Buddhist phrase- ology, puts an end to pain; and he puts an end to pain, not only in himself, but also, by refraining from malicious and stupid activity, to such pain as he may inflict on 5 ENDS AND MEANS others.
A few moralists of whom Nietzsche is the most celebrated and the Marquis de Sade the most uncom- promisingly consistent have denied the value of non- attachment. But these men are manifestly victims of their temperament and their particular social surroundings. Unable to practise non-attachment, they are unable to preach it; themselves slaves, they cannot even understand the advantages of freedom. They stand outside the great tradition of civilized Asiatic and European philosophy.
In the sphere of ethical thought they are eccentrics. Similarly such victims of particular social circumstances as Machiavelli, Hegel and the contemporary philosophers of Fascism and dictatorial Communism, are eccentrics in the sphere of political thought. Such, then, are the ideals for society and for the individual which were originally formulated nearly three thousand years ago in Asia, and which those who have not broken with the tradition of civilization still accept.
In relation to these ideals, what are the relevant con- temporary facts? They may be summed up very briefly. Instead of advancing towards the ideal goal, most of the peoples of the world are rapidly moving away from it.
Marett, 'is progress in charity, all other advances being secondary thereto. Periods of advance in charity have alternated with periods of regression. The eighteenth century was an epoch of real progress. So was most of the nineteenth, in spite of the horrors of indus- trialism, or rather because of the energetic way in which its men of good will tried to put a stop to those horrors. Thus, eighteenth-century thinkers were unanimous in condemning the use of torture by the State. Not only is torture freely used by the rulers of twentieth-century Europe; there are also theorists who are prepared to justify every form of State-organized atrocity, from flogging and branding to the wholesale massacre of minorities and general war.
Another painfully significant symptom is the equanimity with which the twentieth-century public responds to written accounts and even to photographs and moving pictures of slaughter and atrocity. By way of excuse it may be urged that, during the last twenty years, people have supped so full of horrors, that horrors no longer excite either their pity for the victims or their indignation against the perpetrators.
But the fact of indifference remains; and because nobody bothers about horrors, yet more horrors are perpetrated. Closely associated with the regression in charity is the decline in men's regard for truth. At no period of the world's history has organized lying been practised so shamelessly or, thanks to modern technology, so efficiently or on so vast a scale as by the political and economic dictators of the present century. Most of this organized lying takes the form of propaganda, inculcating hatred and vanity, and preparing men's minds for war.
The principal aim of the liars is the eradication of charitable feelings and behaviour in the sphere of international politics. The last fifty years have witnessed a great retreat from monotheism towards idolatry. Such is the world in which we find ourselves a world which, judged by the only acceptable criterion of progress, is manifestly in regression. Technological advance is rapid.
But without progress in charity, technological advance is useless. Indeed, it is worse than useless.
Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwards.
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Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. ScholarBank NUS 2. Ends and means: Huxley, Liberty, Utopia. This area of his thinking has mostly been glossed over in general studies of his work or been merely one part of a broader scholarly interest. I hope to offer a more accurate and thorough analysis of his political thought than has hitherto been available. In this study I invoke particular understandings of the notions of ends, means, and utopia as they are used within moral philosophy and social theory. Page view s
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Aldous Huxley and the Mysticism of Science
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It was published in The book contains illuminating tracts on war, religion, nationalism and ethics, and was cited as a major influence on Thomas Merton in his autobiography, The Seven Storey Mountain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Book by Aldous Huxley. For the album by Vincent Herring, see Ends and Means album.
The Tempest , I, ii,
Ends and Means
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Панк. - Да, панк, - сказала Росио на плохом английском и тотчас снова перешла на испанский. - Mucha joyeria. Вся в украшениях. В одном ухе странная серьга, кажется, в виде черепа.
a Comedy) * Issued in this Collected Edition ALDOUS HUXLEY Ends and Means An Enquiry into the Nature of Ideals and into the Methods employed for.
Насколько опасен вирус. Джабба пристально посмотрел на директора и вдруг разразился смехом. - Вирус? - Его грубый хохот разнесся по подземелью. - Так вы считаете, что это вирус. Фонтейн оставался невозмутимым. Грубость Джаббы была недопустима, но директор понимал, что сейчас не время и не место углубляться в вопросы служебной этики.
Хейл, видимо, не догадывается, что она видела его внизу. - Стратмор знает, что я это видел! - Хейл сплюнул. - Он и меня убьет. Если бы Сьюзан не была парализована страхом, она бы расхохоталась ему в лицо. Она раскусила эту тактику разделяй и властвуй, тактику отставного морского пехотинца. Солги и столкни лбами своих врагов.
Думаешь, надо вернуть им отчет. Она посмотрела на него недовольно. В том, что касалось Мидж Милкен, существовали две вещи, которые никому не позволялось ставить под сомнение. Первой из них были предоставляемые ею данные. Бринкерхофф терпеливо ждал, пока она изучала цифры. - Хм-м, - наконец произнесла .
Кнопочная панель Третьего узла погасла, двери были закрыты. - Черт возьми.
Не знаю, ключ ли это, - сказал Джабба. - Мне кажется маловероятным, что Танкадо использовал непроизвольный набор знаков. - Выбросьте пробелы и наберите ключ! - не сдержался Бринкерхофф. Фонтейн повернулся к Сьюзан.
Ведь он был пацифистом и не стремился к разрушению.