what is diabetes and its types pdf

What Is Diabetes And Its Types Pdf

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Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications JDC is a journal for health care practitioners and researchers, that publishes original research about the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

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What Are the Different Types of Diabetes?

Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications JDC is a journal for health care practitioners and researchers, that publishes original research about the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

JDC also publishes articles on physiological and molecular aspects of glucose homeostasis. The primary purpose of JDC is to act as a source of information usable by diabetes practitioners and researchers to increase their knowledge about mechanisms of diabetes and complications development, and promote better management of people with diabetes who are at risk for those complications.

Manuscripts submitted to JDC can report any aspect of basic, translational or clinical research as well as epidemiology.

Topics can range broadly from early prediabetes to late-stage complicated diabetes. Topics relevant to diabetic complications include diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy; peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease; gastrointestinal disorders, renal failure and impotence; and hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more.

Please click here for more information on our author services. Aims and Scope The primary purpose of Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications is to act as a source of information, usable by those caring for patients with diabetes mellitus who are thereby at risk for development of those complications which all too often appear with time.

In addition to general articles on clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus, Journal of Diabetes and its Complications also presents articles on basic research in all areas of diabetes and its related syndromes.

Topics covered relevant to the diabetic patient will include diagnosis, pathogenesis, and clinical management of the following: diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy; peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease; gastrointestinal disorders, renal failure and impotence; and hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Journal of Diabetes and its Complications will also publish papers on the general pathogenesis and prevention of diabetes. Criteria for initial considerations for papers submitted will be originality, statistical probability of all data, and applicability to the aims of the Journal as a whole.

Additional weight will be afforded to those submissions that are concise and comprehensible. All potentially acceptable manuscripts will be subjected to the process of peer review.

To aid with the peer-review process, at least five suggested reviewers whose expertise falls within the scope of the submitted manuscript must be provided. For each suggested reviewer include full names, addresses physical and email , phone and fax numbers.

Journal Principles All manuscripts submitted to Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications should report original research not previously published or being considered for publication elsewhere, make explicit any conflict of interest, identify sources of funding and generally be of a high ethical standard.

Submission of a manuscript to this journal gives the publisher the right to publish that paper if it is accepted. Manuscripts may be edited to improve clarity and expression. Submission of a paper to Journal of Diabetes and its Complications is understood to imply that it has not previously been published and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

Submission checklist You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. Ensure that the following items are present:. For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication. Ethics Work on human beings that is submitted to the journal should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki "Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects", adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June and its successive amendments.

The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution s in which it was performed.

Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Declaration of interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence bias their work. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file if double anonymized or the manuscript file if single anonymized.

If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.

Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information. Submission declaration and verification Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see ' Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication ' for more information , that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check. Author consent The Corresponding Author must submit an Author Consent document with their manuscript. All authors must sign the Author Consent document, indicating the manuscript is approved by all named authors and the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all authors.

Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e. Use of inclusive language Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities.

Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout.

These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role s following. More details and an example.

Changes to authorship Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor.

To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author : a the reason for the change in author list and b written confirmation e-mail, letter from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.

In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted.

While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum. Registration of clinical trials Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations.

Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes.

Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator will not require registration. Article transfer service This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those.

If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. Copyright Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' see more information on this. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' more information. Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license. Elsevier supports responsible sharing Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

If the funding source s had no such involvement then this should be stated. Open access Please visit our Open Access page for more information. Elsevier Researcher Academy Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review.

Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease. Language usage and editing services Please write your text in good English American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these.

Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services. Language service The Language of the journal is English. Upon request, Elsevier will direct authors to an agent who can check and improve the English of their paper before submission.

Please visit our Support Center for further information. Informed consent and patient details Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication.

Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances for example if a legal issue arises the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained.

Unless you have written permission from the patient or, where applicable, the next of kin , the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials including all illustrations and videos must be removed before submission. Patients and Study Participants Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent which should be documented in your paper.

Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patient's photographs, pedigree, images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in the submissions unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and written informed consent has been obtained for publication in print and electronic form from the patient or parent, guardian or next of kin. If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions.

Written consents must be provided to the journal on request. Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files e. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail. Article types N. For reasons of available space, manuscripts that exceed the required word limits below will be declined automatically.

All articles other than Editorials and Letters to the Editor are subject to full peer review. Editorials are either written or commissioned by the Editors and should not exceed words not including a maximum of 20 references; one small figure can be included.

Diabetes: The differences between types 1 and 2

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar , levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes , your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes , the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well.

Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin , or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss , polyuria increased urination , polydipsia increased thirst , and polyphagia increased hunger. Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision , headache , fatigue , slow healing of cuts , and itchy skin.

This is because an unacceptable level of a probable carcinogen cancer-causing agent was found in some extended-release metformin tablets. If you currently take this drug, call your healthcare provider. They will advise whether you should continue to take your medication or if you need a new prescription. In the United States, the estimated number of people over 18 years of age with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes is The figure represents between Without ongoing, careful management, diabetes can lead to a buildup of sugars in the blood, which can increase the risk of dangerous complications, including stroke and heart disease. Different kinds of diabetes can occur, and managing the condition depends on the type.


PDF | Traditionally, diabetes is classified as type 1 and type 2 based upon the phenotypic insulin or reduce its effectiveness for maintaining euglycemia. Thus​.


What Are the Different Types of Diabetes?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells. Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood known as hyperglycaemia.

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type.

What is diabetes

When any of these things happens, the body is unable to get sugar from the blood into the cells. That leads to high blood sugar levels. Glucose, the form of sugar found in your blood, is one of your main energy sources. A lack of insulin or resistance to insulin causes sugar to build up in your blood. This can lead to many health problems.

Diabetes mellitus , disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar glucose in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That's because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood. However, more and more children and teens are developing this condition.


PDF | Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has When our food is diges​ted, the glucose makes its way All types of diabetes are treatable.


COVID-19 and diabetes

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs. A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. Each type of diabetes has unique symptoms, causes, and treatments. Learn more about how these types differ from one another.

Я запустил антивирус, и он показывает нечто очень странное.

Если все сложится нормально, она скоро выяснит местонахождение Северной Дакоты, и Стратмор конфискует ключ. Тогда дело будет только за Дэвидом. Когда он найдет копию ключа, имевшуюся у Танкадо, оба экземпляра будут уничтожены, а маленькая бомба с часовым механизмом, заложенная Танкадо, - обезврежена и превратится во взрывное устройство без детонатора. Сьюзан еще раз прочитала адрес на клочке бумаги и ввела информацию в соответствующее поле, посмеялась про себя, вспомнив о трудностях, с которыми столкнулся Стратмор, пытаясь самолично запустить Следопыта. Скорее всего он проделал это дважды и каждый раз получал адрес Танкадо, а не Северной Дакоты.

 Мы не шпионим за простыми гражданами, и ты это отлично знаешь. ФБР имеет возможность прослушивать телефонные разговоры, но это вовсе не значит, что оно прослушивает. - Будь у них штат побольше, прослушивали. Сьюзан оставила это замечание без ответа.

 Дэвид… Слава Богу. Я думала, что потеряла. Он потер виски, подвинулся ближе к камере и притянул гибкий шланг микрофона ко рту. - Сьюзан.

 Дэвид! - воскликнула она, еле держась на ногах.  - О, Дэвид… как они могли… Фонтейн растерялся: - Вы знаете этого человека.

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3 Comments

  1. Lauren G.

    Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar.

    30.05.2021 at 10:40 Reply
  2. Emmanuelle L.

    Dose: Taken two or three times daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain.

    03.06.2021 at 09:55 Reply
  3. Martino B.

    make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. Other specific types of diabetes result from specific genetic syndromes, surgery, drugs.

    04.06.2021 at 07:55 Reply

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