linguistic studies of text and discourse halliday pdf

Linguistic Studies Of Text And Discourse Halliday Pdf

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Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. Its original aims lay in uncovering and describing text grammars.

Linguistic studies of text and discourse.

Language Editing Service. Chafe, W. Discourse: Overview[A].

Halliday-linguistic Studies of Text and Discourse

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Beaugrande, R. Introduction to Text Linguistics. Language, context and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Volume 2 in the Collected Works of M.

Halliday All sights served. Linguistic seylistics must be an application, not an extension, of linguistics; this is the only way to ensure the theoretical validity of the statements made. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, , pp.

The Hague: Mouton, , pp. It can presumably be taken for granted that the categories of such a description will be formally defined, and that the description will not be restricted 10 below the rank of the sentence. Linguistic stylistics is thus essentially a comparative study. To pursue the example above, we also need to know the relative frequency of this clause structure in other works of the same period and the same genre. The more texts are studied, the more anything said about any one text becomes interesting and relevant.

While insisting that stylistic studies use the same methods and categories as nonliterary descriptions, we must make the proviso that such studies may require new alignments or groupings of descriptive categories, through which the special properties of a text may be recognized. This may include the bringing together of categories and items described at different levels as well as those scattered throughout the description of any one level. An example of such a grouping, in which various grammatical and lexical features are brought together, is cohesion.

The principal categories subsumed under cohesion are: A. Grammatical 1. Lexical 1. Repetition of item 2. Occurrence of item from same lexical set The grammatical categories are drawn from a comprehensive descrip tion of the grammar of Modern English.

Some commentary on these categories is given here. Cohesion is of course a syntagmatic relation and, insofar as it is grammatical, it is partly accounted for by structure. Structure is the ordered arrangement of one or more items of the same rank to form an item of the rank above: in English, the ways in which a sentence can be made up of clauses, a chuse of groups, a group of words and a word of morphemes.

All structure is thus in the broadest sense cohesive. But with the smaller units there is litde consistent variation between texts. A more delicate treatment of cohesion would certainly include at least some relations in clause or group structure, for example apposition and rankshift; but in the first instance structural cohesion can be limited to the relations between clauses in sentence structure.

These take various forms, of which the most significant for literary texts are dependence and linking. There are certain grammatical categories whose exponents cohere with other items in the text, items to which they do not stand in a fixed structural relation or indeed necessarily in any structural relation at all.

Principal among these are the anaphoric items in the nominal and adverbial group: deictics, submodifiers and adverbs, of which the most frequent are the, this, that, the personal possessives, such, 0, there and then; and the personal pronouns. Deictics and pronouns used cataphorically, pointing forward to a modifier or qualifier as in the tall man, the man who came to dirmer, he who hesitates, itis useful 10 ask, are not cohesive; nor is the homophoric the in the moon.

Secondary in importance to anaphora, because much less frequent in written English, is substitution: the use of do as lexical item in the verbal group and one as head of the nominal group, asin he might have done and a long one. Lexical cohesion in its clearest form is carried by two or more occurrences, in close proximity, of the same lexical item, or of items paradigmatically related in the sense that they may belong to the same lexical set.

For example, in a passage by Leslie Stephen one paragraph ends I took leave, and tured to the ascent of the peak; the next paragraph begins The climb is perfectly easy. Thus in the new paragraph the first lexical item, climb, coheres with ascent; later occur mountain and summit cohering with peak.

The lexical set is identified by privi- lege of occurrence in collocation, just as the grammatical system is identified by privilege of occurrence in structure; the set is a grouping of items with similar tendencies of collocation. The occurrence of a high frequency collocation, like ascent. It includes also other features, not listed here but required by a more delicate analysis: for example, lexical variation within a constant grammatical frame, and vice versa, But it must not be thought that all statements in linguistic stylistics require special alignments of categories.

On the contrary, a straight- forward linguistic description of a literary text, in which the text is treated in exactly the same way as any other text that is being subjected to linguistic analysis, reveals a great deal both about that text in particular and about literary language in general. In other words, the creative writer finds and exploits the irregularity that the patterns allow, and in doing so superimposes a further regularity. This is clearly displayed by any good linguistic description of a text — provided there exists already a good description, textual or otherwise, of that language.

All illustrations in linguistics are misleading. Language does not operate except in the context of other events; even where these are, as with written texts, other language events, any one point made about a piece of text which is under focus raises many further points extending, way beyond it into the context. This does not mean that no linguistic statements can be self-sufficient, but that the only ultimately valid unit for textual analysis is the whole text.

It takes many hours of talking to describe exhaustively even the language of one sonnet. However, if students can be asked to comment on the language of literary texts within the time limits of an examination, it should be possible to give selective illustrations of what would be regarded as a good answer to a question on the language of particular short texts.

I propose here to refer to W. Leda and the Swan A sudden blow: the great wings beating stil Above the staggering girl, the thighs caressed By the dark webs, her nape caught in his bill, He holds her helpless breast upon his breast.

How can those terrified vague fingers push The feathered glory from her loosening thighs? And how can body, laid in that white rush, But feel the strange heart beating where it lies?

Yeats The first example will be the use of the in Leda and the Swan. The relevant grammatical background can be summarized as follows, The primary least delicate structure of the English nominal group is M H Q : a head, which may or may not be preceded by a modifier and followed by a qualifier. Nearly everything occurring in the qualifier is rankshifted: that is, is of a rank in fact always clause or group above or equal to the unit in whose structure it is operating here the group.

These can be illustrated from the following passage: Accordingly, after a peace-offering of tobacco, in return fora draught of foaming milk, I took leave, and turned to the ascent of the peak, The climb is perfectly easy, though I contrived to complicate matters by going the wrong way.

The absence of guides generally enables one to enjoy a little excitement, the more agreeable because not contemplated beforehand. Indeed, to confess the truth, a former attempt upon the mountain had failed altogether by reason of my ingeniously attacking it by the only impracticable route.

It was with all the more satisfaction that 1 found myself on the present occasion rapidly approaching the summit, and circumventing the petty obstacles which tried to oppose my progress. The climb Homophoric: the truth In two instances, the more agreeable and all the more satisfaction, the is not a deictic at all but a distinct formal item which operates as submodifier in the nominal group. The complete statement of the formal properties of these relations, such that they can be recognized as distinct structures, is complex and involves lexis as well as grammar — though in spoken English, since tonicity the placing of the tonic in the tone group can be observed, it is possible to make a purely grammatical statement that accounts for most occurrences.

In written English the general picture is as follows: there is a high probability that if there is a modifier other than she or qualifier in the nominal group, the is cataphoric, 8 if there is no modifier or qualifier, then i if in the preceding context there has occurred a lexical item which is either the same item as, or ftom the same lexical set as, the head of the nominal group, the is anaphoric, ii if not, the is homophoric, Table 1 p. In Leda, however, out of ten nominal groups having the and a modifier or qualifier, only one, the brute blood of the air, had the in cataphoric use.

That is to say, in spite of the the, the dark webs are not identified by their being dark — like the loins, they are to be identified anaphorically, in fact by ana- phoric reference to the title of the poem.

The only other type of writing I can call to mind in which this feature is found at such a high density is in tourist guides and, sometimes, exhibition catalogues hope I need not add that this is in no sense intended as an adverse criticism of the poem.

The second example is the distribution of verbal items in Leda and the Swan. The two passages are alike in this respect: that is all. It is worth examining the lexical items in more detail. By contrast many of those in the Tennyson passage are powerful items: that is, items with restricted ranges of collocation, like plunge, brandish, wheel, and flash.

In Leda, the few verbal items are varied in power, though medium rather than extreme. This, of course, has no evaluative connotations, nor has it anything to do with a denotation of violence or movement. But in fact in Leda the more powerful of the verbal lexical items are items of violence; and it is precisely these that perform nominal rather than verbal roles. Thus while the Tennyson passage, a straightforward narrative, is characterized by a succession of fairly powerful lexical items denoting movement, each constituting by itself a generally monosyllabic finite verbal group in free clause, in Leda, where there are lexical items of movement which are likewise fairly powerful, these either are not verbs at all or are themselves verbs but subordinated to the nominal elements in clause structure.

The third example is a comparison of one or two features in three short passages of prose, which have in common the fact that each is the description of a room.

John Braine Every inch of the room was covered with furniture. There was a double bed, carefully made with the ends of the sheets tumed back; lying on top of a dining table on top of another table there were electric lamps and lampshades, trays, and vases, lavatory bowls and basins, heaped in the armchairs that stood fon cupboards and tables and beds, touching the ceiling.

The one window, looking out on the road, could just be seen through the curved legs of sideboards on their backs. The walls behind the standing mirrors were thick with pictures and picture frames. The design was no doubt carefully chosen to enchant cross-Channel travellers; it had no message for Meg.

In the first weeks she had sought every excuse to be away fiom the roomy; but now suddenly the wallpaper, the pink, bevel-edged, moderr istic mirror, and the furniture of shaded pink and silver began to give her a sense of anonymity. They were so remore from anything she knew or cared for that she felt free, safe, and hidden, Angus Wilson Nominal groups.

Michael Halliday

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Linguistic Studies of Text and Discourse

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Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday often M. Halliday ; 13 April — 15 April was an English-born linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistics SFL model of language. His grammatical descriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar. Halliday's grammar differs markedly from traditional accounts that emphasise classification of individual words e.

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Text linguistics

Society in Language, Language in Society

Systemic Functional Linguistics as appliable linguistics: social accountability and critical approaches 1. LSF como linguistica aplicavel: explicatividade social e abordagens criticas. First it locates SFL within the general category of appliable linguistics as opposed to either theoretical or applied linguistics , an approach to the study of language that is also designed to be socially accountable. Then, against the background of SFL, it traces the development first of Critical Linguistics and then of CDA, also identifying other influences incorporated within these traditions. This leads to an overview of the dimensions of ADA, and finally to the question of the place of ADA within a general appliable linguistics. Halliday in the s and drawing on functional and anthropological approaches to language in Europe and North America from the s onwards. Appliable linguistics includes, but extends beyond, appliable discourse analysis ADA ; I will return to this point in the last section of this paper.

Linguistic Studies of Text and Discourse. Researcher login. CityU Scholars. View graph of relations. Author s Jonathan Webster Editor. Publication series Name Collected Works of M. Halliday Volume 2.

Halliday The papers in this volume focus on the application of systemic functional grammar to the analysis of texts, both highly-valued.

Linguistic studies of text and discourse

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 Чед? - услышал он голос у себя за спиной. Обернувшись, Бринкерхофф начал всматриваться в темноту. Мидж как ни чем не бывало стояла в приемной возле двойной двери директорского кабинета и протягивала к нему руку ладонью вверх. - Ключ, Чед. Бринкерхофф покраснел до корней волос и повернулся к мониторам.

Новые инструкции не оставляли места сомнениям: необходимо во что бы то ни стало найти канадца. Ни перед чем не останавливаться, только бы заполучить кольцо. Беккера очень удивило, что это кольцо с какой-то невразумительной надписью представляет собой такую важность. Однако Стратмор ничего не объяснил, а Беккер не решился спросить. АНБ, - подумал .

Лиланд Фонтейн решил, что с него довольно этого зрелища. - Выключите, - приказал.  - Выключите эту чертовщину. Джабба смотрел прямо перед собой, как капитан тонущего корабля.

 В качестве заложников? - холодно усмехнулся Стратмор.  - Грег, тебе придется придумать что-нибудь получше. Между шифровалкой и стоянкой для машин не менее дюжины вооруженных охранников. - Я не такой дурак, как вы думаете, - бросил Хейл.  - Я воспользуюсь вашим лифтом.

Шифр!. Сьюзан смотрела на эти буквы, и они расплывались перед ее слезящимися глазами. Под вертикальной панелью она заметила еще одну с пятью пустыми кнопками.

В перерывах между сигналами Сьюзан выкрикнула: - Ты - Северная Дакота, Энсей Танкадо передал тебе копию ключа. Он нужен мне немедленно. - Ты сошла с ума! - крикнул в ответ Хейл.  - Я вовсе не Северная Дакота! - И он отчаянно забился на полу.

Я знаю, он нас ненавидит, но что, если предложить ему несколько миллионов долларов. Убедить не выпускать этот шифр из рук. Стратмор рассмеялся: - Несколько миллионов. Ты понимаешь, сколько стоит эта штука. Любое правительство выложит любые деньги.

Вся деятельность в комнате управления относилась к категории Совершенно секретно. УМБРА, что было высшим уровнем секретности в стране. Никогда еще государственные секреты США не были так хорошо защищены. В этой недоступной для посторонних базе данных хранились чертежи ультрасовременного оружия, списки подлежащих охране свидетелей, данные полевых агентов, подробные предложения по разработке тайных операций. Перечень этой бесценной информации был нескончаем.

 - Despiertate! - Ее пальцы инстинктивно вцепились ему в волосы.

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