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Solid State Physics , better known by its colloquial name Ashcroft and Mermin , is an introductory condensed matter physics textbook written by Neil Ashcroft and N. David Mermin. The book has been reviewed several times and has been recommended in many other works.
Solid State Physics
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Start by pressing the button below! David Mermin. We are now Harcourt College Publishers. Ask for us by name. Ashcroft N. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any fonn or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Harcourt, lnc. This book was set in Times Roman Designer. Hieber Associates. Solid state physics. Mermin, N. A83 In both undergraduate and graduate courses we had to resort to a patchwork array of reading assignments, assembled from some half dozen texts and treatises.
This was only partly because of the great diversity of the subject ; the main problem lay in i1s dual nature. On the one hand an introduction to solid state physics must describe in some detail the vast range of real solids, with an emphasis on representative data and illustrative examples. On the other hand there is now a weB-established basic theory of solids, with which any seriousl y interested student must become familiar.
Rather to our surprise, it has taken us seven years to produce what we needed: a single introductory text presenting both aspects of the subject, descriptive and analytical.
Our aim has been to explore the variety of phenomena associated with the major forms of crystalline matter. Our book is designed for introductory courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level. Although these subjects are used as needed, we have tried, especially in the more elementary chapters, to recognize that many readers.
When it is natural to do so, we have clearly separated topics based entirely on classical methods from those demanding a quantum treatmenL In the latter case, and in applications of statistical mechanics, we have proceeded carefully from explicitly stated first principles.
The book is therefore suitable for an introductory course taken concurrently with first courses in quantu m theory and statistical mechanics. Only in the more advanced chapters and appendices do we assume a more experienced readership.
The problems that foil ow each chapter are tied rather closely to the text. Readers should therefore examine the problems. The reader will rhus cncowuer stretches of expository prose unrelieved by figures, when none are necessary, as well as sections that can profitably be perused entirely by looking at the figures and their captions.
We anticipate use of the book at different levels with different areas of major emphasis. A particular course is unlikely to follow the chapters or even selected chapters in the order in which they are presented here, and we have written them in a way that permits easy selection and rearrangement.
The reader is thereby spared t he impression that nothing can be understood tlntil a host of arcane definitions relating to periodic strucll! Periodic structures are introduced only after a survey 3 of those metallic properties that can and cannot be understood without investigating the consequences of periodicity.
Armed with the terminology of periodic systems, readers can pursue to whatever point seems appropriate the resolution of the difficulties in the free e lectron model of metals or. The book follows the first line. Much of the content of these two chapters is suitable for a more advanced c:ourse, as is the following survey of methods used to compute real band structures [II].
The remarkable subject of semiclassical mechanics is introduced and given elementary applications [I 2] before being incorporated into the more elaborate semiclassical theory of transport I 3]. The description of methods by which Fcm1i surfaces arc measured  may be more stlitable for advanced readt:rs, but m uch of the survey : The Tabh: o n pp.
Except for the discussion of screening, an elementary course might also bypass 1he essays on wha t is overlooked by the relaxation-time approximation  and by rhe neglect of electron-electron interactions [ 17]. Work fu nctions and other surface properties 18] can be taken up at any time after the discussion of translational symmetry in real space. Our description of the conventiona l classifica tion of solids [19 has been separated from the analysis of cohesive energies [ Latttce dynamics is given an elementar introduction, v.
The ways in which phonon spectra are measured [ None of the chapters on lattice vi brat ions rely on the usc of normal mode raising and lowering operators; these are described in several appendices for readers wantmg a more advanced treatment.
Homogeneous  a nd inhomogeneous  semiconductors can be examined at any point after the introduction of Bloch's theorem and the elementary discussion of semiclassical mechanics. Crystalline defects  can be studied as soon as crystals themselves have been introduced , though parts of earlier c hapters are occasionally referred to.
Following a review of atomic magnetism, we examine how it is modified in a solid environment , explore exchange and other magnetic interactions , and apply the resulting models to magnetic ordering . This brief introduction to magnetism and the co ncluding essay on superconductivity  are la rgely self-contained. They are pla4- Quunlum harm mic crystal 22 - All AU All. Phooons in metals All - - Measuring pbonons Magnetic ordering 4,5. J2 All 1. Thomson's discovery of the e lectron in bad a vast d unmcdiare impact on theories of the structure of maller.
In its simplest form kmettc theory treats the molecules of a gas as identical solid spheres. Altho ugh the re IS only one kind of panicle presem in the stmplest gases. At his time, however, there was no precise notion of the origin of the light. The solution to this problem is o ne of the fundamental achievements of the modern quantum theory o f solids. This model is indicated schematically in Figure L l. Surrounding the nucleus are Za electrons of total charge - eZa.
A few of these, Z, are the relatively weakly bound valence electrons. The remainingZa - Z electrons art: relatively tightly bound to the nucleus, play much less of a role in chemical reactions. When these isolated atoms condense to form a metal, the core electrons remain bound to the nucleus to form the metallic ion, but the valence electrons are allowed to wander far away from their parent atoms.
In the meta llic context they are calh:d conduction elecuons. The density of the electron gas can be calculated as follows : A metatlic clement contains 0. Since each atom contributes Z electrons, the number of electrons per cubic centimeter. They are typically o f order IOn conduction electrons per cubic centimeter, varying from 0. Note that r jc1 0 is between 2 and 3 in most cases.
These densities are typically a thousand times greater than those of a classical gas at normal temperatures and pressures. In spite of this and in spite of the strong electron-electron and electron-ion electromagnetic interactions, the Orude model boldly treats the dense metallic electron gas by the methods of the kinetic theory of a neutral dilute gas, with only slight modifications.
The basic assumptions are these: l. Between collisions the interaction of a given electron, both with the others and with the ions, is neglected. Thus in the absence of externally applied electromagnetic fields each e lectron is taken to move unifom1ly in a stratght line. In the presence of externaUy applied fields each electron is taken to move as determined by Newton's laws of motion in the presenet: of those external fields, but neglecting the additional complicated fields produced by the other electrons and ions.
The correspondjng neglect of electron-ion interactions is knovm as the. Since we have already calcuLated n assuming that the atomic valence e lectrons become the metallic conduction electrons. Furthermore, they depend on tempct-aturc and on the care with which the sample has been prepared.
This result is somewhat unexpected, since the relar. The more elaborate theory of Chapters 12 amll3 predicts that for many but not a U metals this limiting value is precisely the simple Drude result 1. Some Hall coefficients at high and moderate fields are listed in Table 1.
Note the occurrence of cases in which R 11 is actually positive, apparently corresponding to carriers "ith a positive charge. A striking example of observed field dependence totally unexplained by D r ude theory is shown in Figure 1. The Drude result confmns Hall's observation that the resistance does nor depend on field, for when j. However, more careful experiments on a variety of metals have revealed that there is a magnetic field dependence to the resistance.
A second important consequence of 1. By this we mean a disturbance in wbich the electric charge densi ty 22 has an oscillato ry time dependence e ;, ''. In the present context it emerges as the condition the frequency must meet if a charge density wave is to propagate. The n ature o f this charge density wave, known as a plasma oscillation or plasmon, 23 ca11 be understood in terms of a very simple model.
Imagine displacing the entire electron gas. Describe its polanz. This wave is known as a surracc plasmon. The Fermi velocity is 4. From the viewpo int o f classical s tatistical mechanics this is quite a surprising rf"'" 1 1t, for we are Ground-State Properties of d! Even at room temperature the thermal i. Since k,a 0 is of the order of unity, Eq.
Using 2. Table 2.
Study Material Solid State Physics- Ashcroft and Mermin
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Introduction to Solid State Physics
This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! David Mermin. We are now Harcourt College Publishers. Ask for us by name.
Сьюзан швырнула ему под ноги настольную лампу, но Хейл легко преодолел это препятствие. Он был уже совсем .
Беккер задумался: Я бы хотел, чтобы ты как следует вымыл голову, научился говорить по-человечески и нашел себе работу. Но решил, что хочет от этого парня слишком многого. - Мне нужна кое-какая информация, - сказал .
- Она пробежала глазами таблицу. - Уран распадается на барий и криптон; плутоний ведет себя несколько. В уране девяносто два протона и сто сорок шесть нейтронов, но… - Нам нужна самоочевидная разница, - подсказала Мидж. - У Танкадо сказано: главная разница между элементами.
Беккер терпеть не мог говорить с автоответчиком: только задумаешься, а тот уже отключился. - Прости, не мог позвонить раньше, - успел сказать. Подумал, не рассказать ли ей. Но решил этого не делать.
Ну, мне было все равно. Я просто хотела от него избавиться. - Когда вы отдали ей кольцо.
Лишь едва слышно шуршали лопасти вентиляторов охлаждения мониторов да доносилось ровное дыхание Дэвида в микрофон, почти прижатый к его рту. - Д-дэвид… - Сьюзан не знала, что за спиной у нее собралось тридцать семь человек. - Ты уже задавал мне этот вопрос, помнишь. Пять месяцев .
У них нет света. Джабба полагает, что… - Вы ему звонили. - Да, сэр, я… - Джаббе? - Фонтейн гневно поднялся. - Какого черта вы не позвонили Стратмору. - Мы позвонили! - не сдавалась Мидж.
Он превозносил достоинства Цифровой крепости по электронной почте, которую направлял на свой собственный адрес.
Двухцветный застыл на месте и зашелся в истерическом хохоте. - Ты хочешь сказать, что это уродливое дерьмовое колечко принадлежит. Глаза Беккера расширились. - Ты его. Двухцветный равнодушно кивнул.
Бастион рухнул! - крикнул техник, сидевший в задней части комнаты. - Обнажился второй щит. - Нужно приступать к отключению, - настаивал Джабба. - Судя по ВР, у нас остается около сорока пяти минут.
Старая электрическая сушилка для рук захватана грязными пальцами. Беккер остановился перед зеркалом и тяжело вздохнул. Обычно лучистые и ясные, сейчас его глаза казались усталыми, тусклыми. Сколько я уже тут кручусь.