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Pem Fuel Cell Modeling And Simulation Using Matlab Pdf En

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Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells PEMFCs are the most appropriate type of fuel cells for application in vehicles due to their low operational temperature and high-power density.

Modelling and Simulation of Fuel Cell Dynamics for Electrical Energy Usage of Hercules Airplanes

Gharehpetian, S. Dynamics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFC with hydrogen storage system for generating part of Hercules airplanes electrical energy is presented. Feasibility of using fuel cell FC for this airplane is evaluated by means of simulations.

Temperature change and dual layer capacity effect are considered in all simulations. PID controller is presented to control flow of hydrogen and oxygen to FC and improve transient and steady state responses of the output voltage to load disturbances. The proposed system utilizes an electrolyser to generate hydrogen and a tank for storage.

Therefore, there is no need for batteries. Moreover, the generated oxygen could be used in other applications in airplane. Development of a regenerative fuel cell that can also be used to electrolyze water into hydrogen and oxygen started during the s.

These developments advanced fuel cell technology for the shuttle vehicle and its future upgrades [ 1 ]. FCs could generate electricity and heat from chemical processes [ 2 — 6 ]. Their applications have increased significantly and they could be implemented in many industries such as microelectronics, small boats, airplanes, bus, and combined heat and power CHP applications.

NASA improved the space shuttle operations and as a result a program to upgrade the existing fuel cell power plant was begun. The results were replacing the alkaline fuel cell AFC with a proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell system, resulting in a much lower life cycle cost of the power plant [ 2 — 6 ]. Long distance cruising auks generally need an air independent propulsion power source characterized by high energy density and high energy efficiency. Optimization of fuel cell and supercapacitor for electric vehicles application has been discussed in [ 8 ].

A feasibility study for on-board power generation using a combination of solid oxide fuel cells and gas turbines has been presented in [ 9 ]. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential use of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit APUs for on-board power generation of commercial aircraft [ 10 ].

Power control strategies for the propulsion of unmanned aerial vehicle UAV which is driven by fuel cell and battery as a hybrid system have been studied in [ 11 — 16 ]. A multiphysical proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack model, which is suitable for real-time emulation, has been presented in [ 17 , 18 ]. In [ 19 ], a DC hybrid power source composed of PEM fuel cell as main source, Li-ion battery storage as transient power source, and their interfacing convertors has been modeled.

In [ 20 ], the effect of the fuel cell and photovoltaic hybrid system on the distribution network has been studied. For determining the capacity of each distributed generation source, the voltage limitation on bus voltages under different conditions has been considered. As shown in Figure 1 , FCs have superior energy densities over batteries and ultracapacitors. Moreover, PEMFC has superior advantages like fast start-up and ability to feed partial loads which make it an appropriate option for generating part of start-up electrical energy of Hercules airplanes.

In [ 21 ], a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter has been presented which has high voltage gain. In this converter, all switches main and auxiliary turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. If there is an outage in one or two generators, the electrical need of the commercial aircraft is supplied via main generators which is installed on each main engine and also a small AC generator on the Auxiliary Power Unit APU.

This is a challenge for aircraft manufacturers to reduce the fuel consumption while simultaneously reducing emissions. Hence, there is very strong interest in developing fuel cells for aerospace applications. So, this is focused on in fuel cell application in C Hercules aircraft. C airplanes have 4 motors connected to generators via gearbox. The generator terminals are connected to distribution system by cable and fuselage as neutral point. The fifth generator is a small generator with high speed and for air suction to airplane, which is essential to its start-up.

This sensitive generator will generate the energy for emergency cases. It is extremely sensitive to temperature so that its output is half of that at land with respect to height [ 26 ]. To start the airplane, one could use AC or DC external sources since airplane start-up current is very high. The generated electrical power flows through 4 main, right, left, and essential AC buses.

It is used in different parts of airplane via transformer and AC-DC converters. If one or two generator outage, the remaining generators can generate the needed electrical energy without any problem. But in case of outage of 3 generators, relays will disconnect all buses except the essential bus. In this case, hydraulic systems will fall down and just a few essential systems will continue operating. DC buses are also divided into 4 main, essential, isolated, and battery buses.

The main and essential buses are connected via a relay allowing power flow from the main bus to essential one during the flight, while blocking reverse direct power flow. There is the same configuration between essential and isolated buses; however, reverse power flow is allowed on the land.

Isolated bus is connected to battery bus via a switch. While airplane is on land, all of its electrical energy is supplied from battery, battery bus, and isolated bus. On the other hand, during start-up, the battery bus is disconnected and essential bus gathers electrical energy from external source and passes it to starter and other parts. As mentioned before, to start the airplane it is required to use extra sources which are massive, consuming, and expensive and usually are found in standard airports where C can land.

C airplane can land on terrestrial band where there is no external source. Therefore, airplane cannot fly again. There is a solution that one could carry the external source and staff whose cost is high and reduce airplanes efficiency. Moreover, loss of 3 generators is a dangerous case. So it is required to equip airplane with an essential electricity system to enhance reliability.

The hydrogen and oxygen flow rate is controlled via PID controllers to regulate the system output voltage at 48V. This system will replace the airplanes external power supply which has disadvantages such as high cost, maintenance problem, and high failure rates.

Moreover, the proposed system could be used as a reserve power supply. The motor of airplane is ON with light load and a part of its energy is transferred to the electrolyser to generate hydrogen and oxygen for the use in the next mode. The stored hydrogen and oxygen are transferred to FC in order to generate electrical energy for airplane start-up. The FC Nernst voltage is equal to 1. However, the actual voltage of FC is less than the ideal voltage due to irreversible losses in FC system.

Overvoltages due to internal process and resistance are calculated from an experimental equation:. In 4 , is the current flowing in FC and stir resistance is. The dynamic response of a FC could be analysed by adding a capacitor to steady state model.

Double layer charge effect is considered by adding a parallel capacitor in model. And the ohmic voltage drop is as follows:. The proposed FC includes 65 series cells. So its output voltage is equal to. In this paper, the anode and cathode volume is assumed to be 2L.

The total balance of the thermal energy in a FC cooled by air can be written as follows: where , , and represent generated, stored, and internal dissipated heat, respectively.

An ultracapacitor is an energy storage device similar to conventional batteries. These capacitors include two electrodes floating in an electrolyte and they are separated via an isolator. Electrodes are constructed from a porous material. In simulations, the leakage current is assumed to be constant and the current needed for cooling the system is neglected. Therefore, the capacitor module is modelled by a capacitor in series with a resistance, with The ultracapacitor is modelled like a low pass filter LPF by the following transfer function [ 32 ]:.

An electrolyser system includes several electrolyser cells connected in series. Their - characteristic depends on temperature and usually it is extremely nonlinear and could be obtained by curve fitting. In C airplanes, the converter module shown in Figure 5 has two stages for voltage and frequency regulation.

First stage is a DC-DC boost converter which regulates the output voltage at a high constant DC voltage while its input is a low varying voltage. This can be achieved by proper tuning of duty cycle in the following equation: Figure 6 shows the converter, its pulse generator, and the controller. To determine the values of the convertor inductor and capacitor, one can use the following equations [ 35 , 36 ]: whose symbols are defined in Table 2. So, one can calculate proper inductance and capacitance as below: The DC-DC converter pulse generator should satisfy these following duties: i maximum power point tracking MPPT , ii boosting voltage up to desired level.

It is possible to change the inverter output voltage by varying DC bus voltage level. Therefore, for known inverter output voltage level, it is possible to tune DC bus voltage in order to have constant output voltage. In this paper, the inverter output voltage is Therefore, DC bus voltage should be higher than ; that is, where and represent the DC bus voltage and rms value of the fundamental line voltage. Figure 8 shows the procedure of the duty cycle calculator.

In this figure, the signal is divided into to determine the duty cycle. Moreover, there are solutions in that block to prevent exceeding range and fast variations. The resulting duty cycle passes to pulse generator which should generate signals for IGBT switches. PWM technique is implemented to generate pulses. Afterwards, the generated pulse is used to control DC-DC converter. These two blocks—duty cycle calculator and pulse generator—act as actuator in this closed loop control system.

Regarding circuit properties, medium power rate, high frequency switching, and high input voltage, a three-level converter is used with IGBT switches. The inverter voltage has large harmonic contents that should be eliminated. According to IEEE standard To control the current, a close loop current controller as shown in Figure 11 is used. This control system receives and from an outer control loop and compares them with actual values.

PEM Fuel Cell Modeling and Simulation Using MATLAB

Written for students, engineers, and research scientists, this book provides comprehensive coverage for modeling fuel cell components. One- and two-dimensional models, two-phase flow phenomena, and MEMS fuel cells are included, allowing engineers to test designs in the developmental stage, saving both time and money. Topics covered include the proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, gas diffusion layers, fuel distribution structures, fuel cell stacks, and fuel cell plants. Whether you are transitioning a classroom course to a hybrid model, developing virtual labs, or launching a fully online program, MathWorks can help you foster active learning no matter where it takes place. Select a Web Site. Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Based on your location, we recommend that you select:.

Publisher Summary. This chapter provides an introduction to fuel cells and discusses their modeling with a focus on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM).

Guide to Modelling and Simulation

The scope of the journal covers a wide range of topics in materials science that are of interest to the SPM, encompassing electrochemistry, corrosion and protection of materials, extractive metallurgy and recycling, electronic and optoelectronic materials, biomaterials, forest materials, polymeric and composite materials, foundry, heat treatment and surface engineering, tribology, and fracture. Science and Technology of Materials welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles and technical notes reporting advances on those fields, emphasizing new materials, new products and devices, and new technologies. Continued as Science and Tecnology of Materials. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published.

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Gharehpetian, S. Dynamics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFC with hydrogen storage system for generating part of Hercules airplanes electrical energy is presented. Feasibility of using fuel cell FC for this airplane is evaluated by means of simulations. Temperature change and dual layer capacity effect are considered in all simulations.

PEM Fuel Cell Modeling and Simulation Using MATLAB

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Although, the basic concept of a fuel cell is quite simple, creating new designs and optimizing their performance takes serious work and a mastery of several technical areas. With this book, engineers can test components and verify designs in the development phase, saving both time and money. Easy to read and understand, this book provides design and modelling tips for fuel cell components such as: modelling proton exchange structure, catalyst layers, gas diffusion, fuel distribution structures, fuel cell stacks and fuel cell plant. This book also includes types for one, two and three dimensional modeling and two-phase flow phenomena and microfluidics. Rashid, Ph. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.

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Красная, белая и синяя. Я нашел. В его голове смешались мысли о кольце, о самолете Лирджет-60, который ждал его в ангаре, и, разумеется, о Сьюзан. В тот момент, когда он поравнялся с сиденьем, на котором сидела девушка, и подумал, что именно ей скажет, автобус проехал под уличным фонарем, на мгновение осветившим лицо обладателя трехцветной шевелюры. Беккер смотрел на него, охваченный ужасом.

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Как она попала в АНБ. Как ей удалось стать столь привлекательной. Покраснев, Сьюзан сказала, что созрела довольно поздно.

До Апельсинового сада оставалось всего двенадцать ступенек. ГЛАВА 101 Дэвид Беккер никогда не держал в руках оружия. Сейчас ему пришлось это сделать. Скрюченное тело Халохота темнело на тускло освещенной лестнице Гиральды. Беккер прижал дуло к виску убийцы и осторожно наклонился.

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У него кружилась голова. Слова, которые он прочитал, были теми же, что произнес немец: ПРОВАЛИВАЙ И УМРИ. Девушка, заметно смутившись, посмотрела на свою руку. - Это нацарапал мой дружок… ужасно глупо, правда. Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова.

Стратмор кивнул. Она не выглядела взволнованной. - Новая диагностика. Что-нибудь из Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. Стратмор покачал головой: - Это внешний файл.

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