difference between piaget and vygotsky theories of learning pdf

Difference Between Piaget And Vygotsky Theories Of Learning Pdf

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The way that humans learn has proven to be a mystery of understanding for centuries. There are many factors that contribute to cognitive development and many theories as to how these factors impact on a learned understanding of the world.

Similarities & differences between Piaget & Vygotsky theories

Ima Sample Educational Psychology 28 October x. Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky. Methods and approaches to teaching have been greatly influenced by the research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Both have contributed to the field of education by offering explanations for children's cognitive learning styles and abilities. While Piaget and Vygotsky may differ on how they view cognitive development in children, both offer educators good suggestions on how teach certain material in a developmentally appropriate manner.

Piaget proposed that cognitive development from infant to young adult occurs in four universal and consecutive stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations Woolfolk, A. Between the ages of zero and two years of age, the child is in the sensorimotor stage.

It is during this stage the child experiences his or her own world through the senses and through movement. During the latter part of the sensorimotor stage, the child develops object permanence, which is an understanding that an object exists even if it is not within the field of vision Woolfolk, A. The child also begins to understand that his or her actions could cause another action, for example, kicking a mobile to make the mobile move.

This is an example of goal-directed behavior. Children in the sensorimotor stage can reverse actions, but cannot yet reverse thinking Woolfolk, A. During a child's second and seventh year, he or she is considered to be in the preoperational stage. Piaget stated that during this stage, the child has not yet mastered the ability of mental operations. The child in the preoperational stage still does not have the ability to think through actions Woolfolk, A.

Children in this stage are considered to be egocentric, meaning they assume others share their points of view Woolfolk, A. Because of egocentricism, children in this stage engage in collective monologues, in which each child is talking, but not interacting with the other children Woolfolk, A. Another important aspect of the preoperational stage is the acquisition of the skill of conservation.

Children understand that the amount of something remains the same even if its appearance changes Woolfolk, A. Concrete operations occurs between the ages of seven to eleven years.

Students in the later elementary years, according to Piaget, learn best through hands-on discovery learning, while working with tangible objects.

Reasoning processes also begin to take shape in this stage. Piaget stated that the three basic reasoning skills acquired during this stage were identity, compensation, and reversibility Woolfolk, A. By this time, the child learns that a "person or object remains the same over time" identity and one action can cause changes in another compensation Woolfolk, A.

The child is also able to classify items by focusing on a certain aspect and grouping them accordingly Woolfolk, A. Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is formal operations, occurring from age eleven years to adulthood. People who reach this stage and not everyone does, according to Piaget are able to think abstractly. They have achieved skills such as inductive and deductive reasoning abilities. People in the formal operations stage utilize many strategies and resources for problem solving.

They have developed complex thinking and hypothetical thinking skills. Through hypothetico-deductive reasoning, one is able to identify the factors of a problem, and deduce solutions Woolfolk, A. People in this stage also imagine the best possible solutions or principles, often through the ability to think ideally Woolfolk, A.

The acquisition of meta-cognition thinking about thinking is also a defining factor of those people in formal operations. Based on Piaget's proposed stages and ability levels at each, certain teaching strategies have been offered for teaching in the Piagetian school of thought.

In the preoperational stage, the teacher would have to use actions and verbal instruction. Because the child has not yet mastered mental operations, the teacher must demonstrate his or her instructions, because the child cannot yet think through processes.

The use of visual aids, while keeping instructions short would most benefit the child in this stage Woolfolk, A. Hands-on activities also aid with learning future complex skills, as the text mentions, reading comprehension Woolfolk, A. The teacher must be sensitive to the fact that these children, according to Piaget, are still egocentric and may not realize that not everyone shares the same view Woolfolk, A.

Teaching children in the concrete operations stage involves hands-on learning, as well. Students are encouraged to perform experiments and testing of objects. By performing experiments and solving problems, students develop logical and analytical thinking skills Woolfolk, A. Teachers should provide short instruction and concrete examples and offer time for practice. With skills such as classification, compensation, and seriation developing during this stage, teachers should provide ample opportunities to organize groups of objects on "increasingly complex levels" Woolfolk, A.

Teaching those in the formal operations stage involves giving students the opportunity to advance their skills in scientific reasoning and problem solving, as begun in the concrete operations stage.

Students should be offered open-ended projects in which they explore many solutions to problems. Opportunities to explore hypothetical possibilities should be granted to these students often.

As the text states, teachers need to teach the "broad concepts" of the material while relating it to their lives. Idealism is assumed to be acquired by a person in the formal operations stage; therefore, understanding broad concepts and their application to one's life aid in the realization of ideal concepts.

Piaget also proposed that a child acts on his own environment for learning. Social interaction takes place mainly to move a young child away from egocentricism. It is also important to note that Piaget stated that a child either held the mental structure for conservation, for example, or he did not. A child in the preoperational stage could not be taught to understand the liquid volume experiment; she does not possess the mental structure of a child in concrete operations.

As part of their cognitive development, children also develop schemes, which are mental representations of people, objects, or principles. These schemes can be changed or altered through what Piaget called assimilation and accommodation.

Assimilation is information we already know. Accommodation involves adapting one's existing knowledge to what is perceived. Disequilibrium occurs when new knowledge does not fit with one's accumulated knowledge. When one reaches what Piaget called equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation have occurred to create a new stage of development Woolfolk, A. When learning the concept of conservation, a child must first "struggle" with the idea that the liquid amount in the cylinders has not changed disequilibrium.

After accommodating the new knowledge, equilibrium occurs, and the child may advance to a new cognitive stage concrete operations. Around this time, another psychologist was offering his views on child cognitive development. Lev Vygotsky offered an alternative to Piaget's stages of cognitive development. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Development became a major influence in the field of psychology and education Woolfolk, A. Through what Vygotsky called "dialogues," we socially interact and communicate with others to learn the cultural values of our society.

Vygotsky also believed that "human activities take place in cultural settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings" Woolfolk, A. Therefore, our culture helps shape our cognition. Through these social interactions, we move toward more individualized thinking. The co-constructed process involves people interacting during shared activities, usually to solve a problem Woolfolk, A. When the child receives help through this process, he or she may be able to utilize better strategies in the future, should a similar problem arise.

The co-constructed dialogues lead to internalization, which in turn leads one to independent thinking Woolfolk, A. Scaffolding is another Vygotskian principle for the sociocultural perspective. Scaffolding involves providing the learner with hints or clues for problem solving in order to allow the student to better approach the problem in the future Woolfolk, A.

While Piaget would assume the student does not yet have the mental structures to solve such a problem, Vygotsky would offer encouragement or strategies, in the form of scaffolding, in order for the student to attempt the problem. The development of language is considered to be a major principle of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. The language of a certain group of people indicates their cultural beliefs and value system.

For example, a tribe with many words meaning "hunting" indicates that hunting is an important aspect of their lives. The text states that children learn language much the same way that children learn cognitive skills. Vygotsky states that humans may have "built in biases, rules, and constraints about language that restrict the number of possibilities considered" Woolfolk, A. A child's thinking regarding these language constraints is very important in language development Woolfolk, A.

Another aspect of language development involves private speech. Private speech is self-talk children and adults may use to guide actions and aid in thinking. While Piaget may view private speech as egocentric or immature, Vygotsky understood the importance of self-directed speech.

Private speech is considered to be self-directed regulation and communication with the self, and becomes internalized after about nine years Woolfolk, A.

Vygotsky also emphasized the importance of cultural tools in cognition. Cultural tools can be any technological tool or any symbolic tool which aids in communication Woolfolk, A. Language, the media, television, computers, and books are only a handful of all the cultural tools available for problem solving or learning.

Higher-level processing is "mediated by psychological tools, such as language, signs, and symbols" Woolfolk, A. After receiving co-constructed help, children internalize the use of the cultural tools, and are better able to utilize the tools in the future on their own Woolfolk, A.

Another Vygotskian principle for teaching involves the zone of proximal development. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that there were some problems out of a child's range of understanding. However, in contrast, Vygotsky believed that given proper help and assistance, children could perform a problem that Piaget would consider to be out of the child's mental capabilities.

The zone is the area at which a child can perform a challenging task, given appropriate help Woolfolk, A. Piaget and Vygotsky also differ in how they approach discovery learning. Piaget advocated for discovery learning with little teacher intervention, while Vygotsky promoted guided discovery in the classroom. Guided discovery involves the teacher offering intriguing questions to students and having them discover the answers through testing hypotheses Woolfolk, A.

The students are engaged in the discovery process; however, they are still receiving assistance from a more knowledgeable source. A teacher utilizing Vygotskian methods for teaching would be a very active member in her student's education. The teacher would apply the technique of scaffolding by providing assistance and offering feedback when relating new information Woolfolk, A.

Comparison between Piaget & Vygotsky

Sociocultural theory is an emerging theory in psychology that looks at the important contributions that society makes to individual development. This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live. Sociocultural theory also suggests that human learning is largely a social process. Sociocultural theory grew from the work of seminal psychologist Lev Vygotsky , who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. According to Vygotsky, learning has its basis in interacting with other people. Once this has occurred, the information is then integrated on the individual level. Vygotsky was a contemporary of other great thinkers such as Freud , Skinner , and Piaget , but his early death at age 37 and the suppression of his work in Stalinist Russia left him in relative obscurity until fairly recently.

Similarities & differences between Piaget & Vygotsky theories

He was in our textbook, however, and textbooks are expensive, so we all studied Piaget and absorbed his ideas about how and why and when learning occurred. The human eye has to reach a stage of physiological development before a child can move from larger to smaller text and that development is not at the same point for all children. Thus, the teacher is sometimes waiting on the development of the child.

Ima Sample Educational Psychology 28 October x. Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky. Methods and approaches to teaching have been greatly influenced by the research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Both have contributed to the field of education by offering explanations for children's cognitive learning styles and abilities. While Piaget and Vygotsky may differ on how they view cognitive development in children, both offer educators good suggestions on how teach certain material in a developmentally appropriate manner.

Piaget's research emphasized "nature," or innate capabilities, while Vygotsky's theories revolved around "nurture," or the connection between environment and development. Cognitive development can be defined as the formation of thought processes starting from childhood through adolescence to adulthood which includes language, mental imagery, thinking, reasoning, remembering, decision-making, and problem solving. Concrete operational stage: from ages seven to eleven. Piaget and Vygotsky both put a greater emphasis on the importance of action on the origin of diverse forms of intelligence, and on all functions of consciousness. There are many circumstances that offer cognitive development and many theories as to how these factors influence a learned understanding of the world.

Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

Skip to content. The key difference between Piaget and Vygotsky is that Piaget believed that self-discovery is crucial, whereas Vygotsky stated that learning is done through being taught by a More Knowledgeable Other. Created by: caitlyn.

Great Theorists. Jean Piaget versus Lev Vygotsky

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