international refugee aid and social change in northern mali pdf

International Refugee Aid And Social Change In Northern Mali Pdf

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Following the outbreak of violence in the Gao, Kidal, and Timbuktu regions of Mali, hundreds of thousands of people have fled northern Mali and sought refuge with host communities and in refugee camps in neighbouring countries. As conflict continues in northern Mali, the situation is expected to further deteriorate and pastoral populations are expected to migrate throughout the region in greater numbers. The situation has been exacerbated by an on-going food crisis in eight countries in the Sahel, including Mali, Mauritania, Burkina Faso, and Niger.

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The Paranoid Neighbor: Algeria and the Conflict in Mali

Why does it matter? As violence takes on a communal character, civilians, men and women of all ages, are more frequently targeted based on their ethnicity alone. The presence of the state is dangerously waning, with jihadists and armed self-defence groups controlling more and more territory. What should be done? They should use both carrots and sticks to encourage demobilisation of militias, and seek to resolve land conflicts that are often the root cause of violence.

As the crisis in Mali threatens to grow into a full-fledged regional security and humanitarian nightmare, nervous neighboring countries are looking to Algeria to lead a conflict management effort. In many ways Algeria has always wanted recognition as a regional leader. Yet, Algiers worries about being dragged into a Saharan quagmire and seems reluctant or unable to maintain stability in its backyard. Algiers, critical to the success of conflict management and resolution in the region, is in a unique position to influence events in Mali. Bolstering the political transition in Bamako should be a priority.

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Refugee crisis can refer to difficulties and dangerous situations in the reception of large groups of forcibly displaced persons. These could be either internally displaced , refugees , asylum seekers or any other huge groups of migrants. A crisis could occur within the country, while attempting to leave, or while on the move to a safe country, or even after arrival in a country of asylum. A situation can be called a crisis, either from the perspective of the forcibly displaced persons, or from the perspective of the receiving state, or both. In , an estimated , refugees crossed the Mediterranean Sea in attempts to reach Europe due to dangers in their home countries. Crisis of refugees can refer to large groups of displaced people, who could be either internally displaced persons, refugees or other migrants, the incidents in their country of origin, or to problems while on the move, or it can refer to problems in the hosting countries after arrival involving large groups of displaced peoples, asylum seekers or refugees. Causes for the crisis of the refugees can include war and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In Africa many of the refugee flows in recent years have had a strong ethnic dimension; interethnic conflict or conflict between politically powerful groups with minority populations is often an important aspect of who is forced to flee. In most cases the origins of conflict occur in a multiethnic environment, and repatriation if it happens occurs in that multiethnic context, with implications for subsequent relationships between the groups in terms of political, economic, and numeric power. As the primary source of recruitment to a population, fertility is an essential component of postconflict restructuring. The disruption of fertility during the disorder of forced migration can itself be seen as part of the disintegration of society and identity; the impact of conflict and flight on reproduction may be an important indicator of the degree of crisis faced by the population.


attention must be given to the impact of international aid and development programmes The interface between refugee aid and social change in northern Mali must be seen in and having learnt to read, write and improve their manual skills.


Reversing Central Mali’s Descent into Communal Violence

Jump to navigation. The security situation continues to worsen as violence spreads from the north to the more populated central regions of the country. The presence and activities of armed groups not included in the agreement continues to influence the security situation. Clashes between pastoralist farmers and nomadic herder communities over land, access to water points, and grievances complicated by resource access, have also increased in central and northern regions, fuelled by the presence of Islamist armed groups. Insecurity has disrupted economic and trade activities, resulting in the unreliable availability of food in the markets.

Since January , there has been persistent violence and instability in Mali and in the neighboring countries of Burkina Faso, Chad, and Niger. The conflict has evolved from a separatist rebellion in northern Mali to communal and extremist violence in wide swaths across the Sahel. The region has seen two coups in Mali, a popular uprising in Burkina Faso, and the first-ever civilian transition of power in Mauritania—with one pending in Niger. International and regional responses to the conflict have failed to blunt the escalating insecurity and accompanying humanitarian crises. To be sure, there has been a significant increase in funding; a proliferation of envoys, forums, and ad-hoc coalitions; and more muscular military operations.

Center for Strategic & International Studies

This literature review aims to reflect relevant empirical and policy analysis together with more up-to-date commentary on the situation in Mali, as of January The conflict in Mali is highly complex and fluid: the situation with regards to the various groups engaged in conflict is developing on a daily basis, as are the responses from local and international actors.

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Но чего еще можно было ждать от Танкадо - что он сохранит кольцо для них, будучи уверенным в том, что они-то его и убили. И все же Сьюзан не могла поверить, что Танкадо допустил бы. Ведь он был пацифистом и не стремился к разрушению. Он лишь хотел, чтобы восторжествовала правда. Это касалось ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Это касалось и права людей хранить личные секреты, а ведь АНБ следит за всеми и каждым.

В тот год аналогичное приглашение получили еще сорок кандидатов. Двадцативосьмилетняя Сьюзан оказалась среди них младшей и к тому же единственной женщиной. Визит вылился в сплошной пиар и бесчисленные интеллектуальные тесты при минимуме информации по существу дела. Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили. Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала.

Беккер скорчил гримасу: что это за имя.

Сьюзан объяснила, что перехватываемые сообщения обычно исходят от правительств потенциально враждебных стран, политических фракций, террористических групп, многие из которых действуют на территории США. Эти сообщения обычно бывают зашифрованы: на тот случай, если они попадут не в те руки, - а благодаря КОМИНТ это обычно так и происходит. Сьюзан сообщила Дэвиду, что ее работа заключается в изучении шифров, взламывании их ручными методами и передаче расшифрованных сообщений руководству.

Once there was a lake: vulnerability to environmental changes in northern Mali

Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул. Через шестьдесят секунд у него над головой затрещал интерком. - Прошу начальника систем безопасности связаться с главным коммутатором, где его ждет важное сообщение. От изумления у Джаббы глаза вылезли на лоб.

 - Туда и обратно. Он был настолько погружен в свои мысли, что не заметил человека в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, который следил за ним с другой стороны улицы. ГЛАВА 18 Стоя у громадного окна во всю стену своего кабинета в токийском небоскребе, Нуматака с наслаждением дымил сигарой и улыбался. Он не мог поверить в свою необыкновенную удачу. Он снова говорил с этим американцем, и если все прошло, как было задумано, то Танкадо сейчас уже нет в живых, а ключ, который он носил с собой, изъят.

Начиная с того дня, анонимные переадресующие компании перестали быть для АНБ источником серьезных неприятностей. - Вы сможете его найти? - спросил Стратмор. - Конечно. Почему вы не позвонили мне раньше.

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