File Name: uses of lanthanides and actinides .zip
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- 6.14: Lanthanides and Actinides
- Lanthanides: Properties and Reactions
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Although the lanthanide elements, alloys, and compounds have many uses, less expensive alternatives functioning just as efficiently are used where possible. But despite their cost, the unique properties of the lanthanides do sometimes favor their use over cheaper substances, and millions of tons of lanthanides, in metallic, alloy , and compound form, are produced annually. One of the earliest uses involved an alloy of cerium and iron , called Auer metal, which produced a brilliant spark when struck. This has been widely used as a "flint" in cigarette and gas lighters. Auer metal is one of a series of mixed lanthanide alloys called misch metals that have a variety of metallurgical applications. These alloys are composed of varying amounts of the lanthanide metals, mostly cerium and smaller amounts of others such as lanthanum, neodymium, and praseodymium. They have been used to impart strength, hardness, and inertness to structural materials.
Studies of electronic configurations in the emission spectra of lanthanides and actinides: application to the interpretation of Es I and Es II, predictions for Fm I. Actinides In actinides the differentiating electron enters 5f orbitals. Journal of Solid State Chemistry. The series of actinides is naturally divided into two segments. They should sit in the middle of the table in the transition metal block. Actinides: Electronic configuration. Since is designated as International Year of the Periodic Table, it is an appropriate time to reflect on lanthanide and actinide chemistry.
6.14: Lanthanides and Actinides
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The Lanthanides consist of the elements in the f-block of period six in the periodic table. While these metals can be considered transition metals, they have properties that set them apart from the rest of the elements. The Lanthanides were first discovered in when a unusual black mineral was found in Ytterby, Sweden. This mineral, now known as Gadolinite, was later separated into the various Lanthanide elements. In , Professor Gadolin obtained yttria, an impure form of yttrium oxide, from the mineral. In , Berzelius and Klaproth secluded the first Cerium compound. Later, Moseley used an x-ray spectra of the elements to prove that there were fourteen elements between Lanthanum and Hafnium.
PDF | On Mar 1, , Fatma Hassan published Lanthanide and Actinide The informal chemical symbol Ln is used in general discussions of.
Lanthanides: Properties and Reactions
Russian "nesting dolls" often known as matryoshka dolls have a long history in Russia. These dolls are designed to nest inside of one another. When we open the largest doll, we find a somewhat smaller doll inside it. These dolls can often go down seven or eight layers, but some can go upwards of over thirty-five layers. We see some hidden "layers" in chemistry.
Lanthanides and actinides are used in a wide variety of applications, from energy production to life sciences. To address toxicity issues due to the chemical, and often radiological, properties of these elements, methods to quantify and recover them from industrial waste are necessary. Furthermore, current decorporation protocols to respond to accidental actinide exposure rely on intravenous injections of soluble chelating agents, which are inefficient for treatment of inhaled radionuclides trapped in lungs. In recent years, nanoparticles have emerged as powerful tools in both industry and clinical settings. Because some inorganic nanoparticles are sensitive to external stimuli, such as light and magnetic fields, they can be used as building blocks for sensitive bioassays and separation techniques.
The informal chemical symbol Ln is used in general discussions of lanthanide chemistry to refer to any lanthanide. All but one of the lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell. There is some dispute on whether lanthanum or lutetium is a d-block element, but lutetium is usually considered so by those who study the matter;   it is included due to its chemical similarities with the other
Extraction of Metals from Soils and Waters pp Cite as. Since the actinide ions are classified as hard acids they associate most strongly with hard base complexants. Among these complexants, those with oxygen donor groups have been the most widely used. By contrast with transition metal and post-transition metal ions, actinides can frequently achieve higher coordination numbers than six. Therefore multidentates that can accommodate to high coordination numbers are good candidates for being extractants for actinides. Another feature of the actinides is their occurrence as oxycations.
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