corrosion inspection and monitoring pdf

Corrosion Inspection And Monitoring Pdf

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What is corrosion monitoring and why is it important?

Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring

Unfortunately these materials e. Therefore, the corrosion risks of these materials have to be proactively managed. To this end BPX have developed and implemented corrosion control strategies which integrate risk assessment and corrosion control with corrosion monitoring and inspection.

The application of corrosion monitoring as part of a corrosion control strategy is complex and often becomes the responsibility of engineers who are not experts in the field. This manual has been developed as an aide to those designing and operating a corrosion monitoring system. The manual focuses on techniques which are classically called corrosion monitoring techniques.

This document supplements the BP recommended practice on corrosion monitoring, RP, by providing more in-depth information and advice based on recent operational experience. H Choice of monitoring technique. H Application of the various techniques. H Critique of monitoring techniques. Other complementary methods such as inspection, intelligence pigging and downhole surveys are outside the scope of this manual and are covered by the BP recommended practice RP Many of the principles and concepts given here are also relevant to processing facilities such as glycol and amine gas treatment systems, although these cases are not dealt with specifically.

The integrity of such facilities is vital to the successful and profitable operation of the Company and the prevention of environmentally sensitive incidents.

Lower cost materials are the natural economic choice for oil and gas production and transportation facilities. Therefore, the corrosion risks of these materials have to be managed proactively. To this end BPX have developed and implemented corrosion control strategies which integrate corrosion monitoring with risk assessment and corrosion control.

The aim of corrosion monitoring is primarily to ensure that the design life is not being adversely affected or compromised and also to maximise the safe and economic operational life of a facility by: H Safe operation of a process plant Corrosion can compromise plant integrity.

If a plant is to be operated safely, all corrosion risks must be monitored. H Improvement in the economic operation This aims to optimise corrosion control activities e. Also to ease inspection load during planned shutdowns and to optimise spares stocks. In addition to these are the effects of corrosion control methods corrosion inhibition, increased corrosion allowance, corrosion resistant alloys and process changes and upsets one-off well workovers such as acidisations well intervention, onset of water breakthrough, introduction of third party fluids.

There are three main components in the development and implementation of the BPX corrosion control strategies. Criticality assessment combines the consequences of such failure with the probability of it happening. Individual corrosion mechanisms depend on specific parameters that can be controlled and monitored in different ways. In most cases the probability of internal corrosion is dominated by only one or perhaps two corrosion mechanisms.

H Control procedures Once the main risks have been identified and assessed, measures to mitigate the risks need to be identified, detailed and implemented. In other cases additional measures will be required, e. H Monitoring and inspection In all cases monitoring and inspection procedures will have to be put in place to confirm: H Actual vs.

The first is the ongoing monitoring of the corrosion process and the measures taken to control it. The second is the provision of mechanical integrity assurance. Inspection also provides datum points against which corrosion monitoring is often related or quantified. In a corrosion control strategy these tasks aim to determine whether the expected corrosion is actually occurring, the corrosion rate, and the effectiveness of any control measures. Figure 2 classifies currently available inspection and monitoring techniques indicating the complementary characteristics of each technique.

Results from corrosion monitoring and inspection must be used to re-evaluate and modify, where necessary, the risk and criticality assessment and any control procedures. This report focuses on the corrosion monitoring elements in a corrosion control strategy.

When undertaking corrosion monitoring it is important not to rely on just one method. The best results are obtained by using a range of techniques. Uniform Corrosion Localised Corrosion Notes: a the position of a technique in the table does not relate to its exact position along the arrows b Flexible UT mats maximum temperature is C What are Corrosion Monitoring Methods? The use of any method that enables an operator to estimate or measure the corrosion rate occurring in service of an item of plant, or the corrosivity of a process stream.

The main methods fall into the following four categories: Inspection These techniques are used to assess wall thickness changes, and detect material defects with the possibility of detecting pit growth or crack propagation. The techniques most commonly used are: ultrasonics, magnetic flux on-line inspection vehicle , radiography, acoustic emission, thermography, visual examination, dye penetrant and magnetic particle inspection.

On-line corrosion monitoring These techniques are used to assess changes in corrosivity with time. Typically the techniques are probe based and include electrical resistance methods, electrochemical methods and weight loss coupons. Analysis of process streams This approach is the monitoring of key process variables that affect stream corrosivity. Many of these methods have fast response times [O 2 ], pH, etc.

A good example is the use of on-line oxygen monitoring to maintain an acceptable oxygen content in a sea water injection stream to control corrosion rates. Process stream data can be used with mathematical models to predict the potential corrosion rates throughout the facility. However, the main value of process stream data is for ensuring that any control activities are working and that when corrosion has been detected effective data analysis can be undertaken to identify the cause.

Operational history assessment This approach is the analysis of previous data as an aide to providing information about the present and predicted corrosion rates. H Failure analysis and inspection data can be used to predict parts of a facility most susceptible to certain modes of attack and subsequent failure. Historically, corrosion monitoring and process data analyses were perceived as quite separate from inspection activities.

Although inspection has been historically concerned with mechanical integrity, many inspection techniques can be used as corrosion monitoring tools. The complementary nature of these approaches is summarised in Figure 2. This can be achieved by ensuring full access to all databases which hold the relevant information and having the appropriate software to conduct the relevant correlational analysis.

The guidelines in this report focus on techniques which are classically called corrosion monitoring methods. Corrosion monitoring aspects are summarised in the current BP recommended practice RP This report supplements RP and provides a practical guide to corrosion monitoring giving full details on the design and application of a corrosion monitoring system.

The aim is not to be prescriptive or disregard conventional inspection techniques but rather to put in place guidelines which will aid any operator concerned with corrosion monitoring. It should be noted that there may be additional cost considerations related to safety, environmental and production impacts which are NOT considered in the following. This random error can only be reduced by increasing the amount of corrosion monitoring undertaken but this will increase the overall costs of the activity.

For an optimal corrosion monitoring program the benefit obtained should be greater than the cost incurred. For corrosion inhibitor optimisation there is a trade-off between replacement costs and corrosion inhibition costs Figure 3a.

This results in an operational minimum of the sum of the corrosion inhibition costs and the pipeline equipment repair or replacement costs. In order to determine the optimum corrosion inhibitor injection rate, the corrosion rate for the system needs to be determined.

The corrosion rate will determine if the corrosion inhibitor injection rate is effective, if it needs adjustment up or down , or if some alternative means of control is required e. Figure 3c clearly shows the point at which no additional corrosion monitoring is warranted as the incremental savings from corrosion inhibitor optimisation are less than the cost of the monitoring program. The cross-over of the two curves indicates the level of corrosion monitoring required to optimize the overall cost structure.

This approach can be generalised to other corrosion mitigation methodologies and the monitoring of these systems. In general there is an optimum amount of corrosion monitoring in a system above which the costs of monitoring exceed any savings generated. Table 1 gives outline costs for various corrosion monitoring techniques. This table is a guide to the relative costs of each technique hardware and any operational costs associated with installation and data analysis.

The costs will vary depending upon asset location and number of monitoring locations. Coupon analysis Electrical Resistance Probe insertion and probes retrieval. Detailed data analysis. The selection of the appropriate monitoring location s and technique s is critical for successful corrosion monitoring. It cannot be stressed enough that selection of the wrong location or technique will result in a large amount of effort and expense only to generate inappropriate or even misleading information.

In many cases incorrect selection is worse than no selection as the quality of data are often not questioned. Physical access is important but should not dictate monitoring location. However, when a monitoring point is identified the position should allow routine access for probe maintenance, retrieval etc.

General Guidelines 15 Selection of a Corrosion Monitoring Location and Technique Introduction Incorrect selection of location or technique is worse than no selection. All corrosion monitoring and inspection locations and methods must be recorded on the relevant technical drawings. On new facilities they should be included in the Computer Aided Design CAD system as this aids data analysis and the development of control procedures.

The records should include not only details on the system, item and location, but also the method and probe orientation. There are no fixed rules on how to select a corrosion monitoring location or technique but the first step must be to decide the types of corrosion mechanisms to be monitored. Experience has shown that the following approaches are of value. Approaches to Selection This aspect is vitally important at the design stage where operator feed back could prevent costly mistakes being re-made and minimise the cost of subsequent retro-fitting.

Design contractors have limited operational experience and so it is important that BP assets support this activity by providing feedback and lessons learnt. H Networking A wide range of disciplines need to be networked to obtain a full picture of current and potential future problems.

For example production engineers can provide information on production profiles and well intervention programmes which may influence corrosion; production chemists have knowledge on fluid properties and chemical control measures which may influence corrosion; maintenance engineers can identify where most failures or replacements have been located. Corrosion monitoring was undertaken using an intrusive electrical resistance probe via a top of the line access fitting. Low corrosion rates were observed which appeared to be insensitive to process changes.

In this case the probe response was most likely reflecting the corrosivity of the continuous hydrocarbon phase and not that of the aqueous phase which constituted the corrosion hazard. A more reliable approach may well have been to have used a flush mounted electrical resistance probe via an access fitting located at the bottom of line where water separates out. This section outlines the main points that should be considered when identifying a corrosion monitoring location.

These are summarised in Figure 4. Corrosion monitoring was undertaken using a flush mounted linear polarisation resistance LPR probe via a bottom of line access fitting.

The monitoring programme yielded an exponentially increasing corrosion rate with time. In this case the most likely explanation of the results was that the probe response reflected the shorting out of the probe elements due to the formation of a conducting sulphide film. A more reliable approach may have been to substitute the LPR probe with a flush mounted electrical resistance probe in the same location.

Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring

Course Overview. Corrosion is a disease to materials just like a disease to human beings. Some types or forms of corrosion can be prevented through good practices in materials selection and design, while others can be cured or controlled if diagnosed early. Unexpected corrosion failures can be avoided through corrosion inspection , corrosion monitoring, and corrosion testing. This corrosion short course aims to present to the technologists and engineers a dozen of corrosion testing and monitoring techniques that can be used to solve many of their most tedious and persistent corrosion problems.

Corrosion and Protection pp Cite as. In this chapter, first a brief introduction regarding general objectives, methods and procedures of corrosion testing is given. This is followed by a presentation of the most important principles of electrochemical testing, and finally some actual methods of monitoring and inspection are reviewed. For further study, reference is made to References [ 9. Unable to display preview.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Roberge Published Engineering. Chapter 1.

A Complete Guide to Corrosion Monitoring

To many people involved in the Oil and Gas production and refining industry, the terms monitoring and inspection are used interchangeably when referring to corrosion issues. However, this lack of differentiation can lead to misunderstandings and errors. It is our contention that a clear differentiation is needed and that engineers should strive to use the correct terminology. A review of some of the named techniques and methods used in these areas will help to consolidate an understanding of which terms fall into the inspection bracket and which are viewed as corrosion monitoring devices. The following definitions may not be exactly scientific in nature, but they do help to show two major differences between the two sets of valuable corrosion management tools.

Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring - Pierre R. Roberge [, PDF]. Advances in information technology and electronics have led to very efficient tools for monitoring and inspecting corrosion, including impedance spectroscopy, electrical field signatures, acoustic emissions, and radiographs. This reference book explains both intrusive and non-intrusive methods of measuring corrosion rates. Topics covered: impact of corrosion on the economy and the safe operation of systems, various forms of corrosion, with a focus on the detectability of corrosion damage, principles of risk-based inspection and various risk assessment methodologies, monitoring of microbiologically induced corrosion MIC , cathodic protection CP systems, and atmospheric corrosion, non-destructive evaluation NDE techniques, including visual, ultrasonic, radiographic, electromagnetic, and thermographic inspection, roadmaps used by various industries and organizations for carrying out complex inspection and monitoring schedules.

Unfortunately these materials e. Therefore, the corrosion risks of these materials have to be proactively managed. To this end BPX have developed and implemented corrosion control strategies which integrate risk assessment and corrosion control with corrosion monitoring and inspection.

 Когда? - Он заржал.  - Она давно уехала. Отправилась в аэропорт несколько часов .

corrosion monitoring manuel-BP.pdf

Никогда еще получение разведывательной информации не было столь легким делом. Шифры, перехваченные АНБ, вводились в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и через несколько минуты выплевывались из машины в виде открытого текста. Секретов отныне больше не существовало. Чтобы еще больше усилить впечатление о своей некомпетентности, АНБ подвергло яростным нападкам программы компьютерного кодирования, утверждая, что они мешают правоохранительным службам ловить и предавать суду преступников.

В Севильском соборе единственный вход одновременно является выходом. Такая архитектура стала популярной в те времена, когда церкви одновременно служили и крепостями, защищавшими от вторжения мавров, поскольку одну дверь легче забаррикадировать. Теперь у нее была другая функция: любой турист, входящий в собор, должен купить билет. Дверь высотой в шесть метров закрылась с гулким стуком, и Беккер оказался заперт в Божьем доме. Он закрыл глаза и постарался сползти на скамье как можно ниже: он единственный в церкви был не в черном.

Голоса показались ему знакомыми. Он толкнул дверь. Комната оказалась пуста. Пуст был и вращающийся стул Мидж. Звуки шли сверху. Он поднял глаза на видеомониторы, и у него закружилась голова. Одна и та же картинка смотрела на него со всех двенадцати мониторов наподобие какого-то извращенного балета.


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Рано или поздно я отсюда смоюсь. - Я этого не переживу. В этот момент Сьюзан поймала себя на том, что готова взвалить на Хейла вину за все свои неприятности. За Цифровую крепость, волнения из-за Дэвида, зато, что не поехала в Смоуки-Маунтинс, - хотя он был ко всему этому не причастен. Единственная его вина заключалась в том, что она испытывала к нему неприязнь. Сьюзан важно было ощущать свое старшинство. В ее обязанности в качестве главного криптографа входило поддерживать в шифровалке мирную атмосферу - воспитывать .

Она тихо плакала, закрыв. В ушах у нее раздавался непрекращающийся звон, а все тело словно онемело. Хаос, царивший в комнате оперативного управления, воспринимался ею как отдаленный гул. Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран. Агент Смит начал доклад. - По вашему приказу, директор, - говорил он, - мы провели в Севилье два дня, выслеживая мистера Энсея Танкадо.

 Танкадо отдал кольцо? - скептически отозвалась Сьюзан. - Да. Такое впечатление, что он его буквально всучил - канадцу показалось, будто бы он просил, чтобы кольцо взяли. Похоже, этот канадец рассмотрел его довольно внимательно.  - Стратмор остановился и повернулся к Сьюзан.  - Он сказал, что на кольце были выгравированы какие-то буквы. - Буквы.

Ну, мне было все равно. Я просто хотела от него избавиться.

 В четыре сорок пять ко мне на личный телефон поступил звонок. Вы можете сказать, откуда звонили? - Он проклинал себя за то, что не выяснил этого раньше. Телефонистка нервно проглотила слюну. - На этой машине нет автоматического определителя номера, сэр. Я позвоню в телефонную компанию.

Сьюзан нахмурилась. Она понимала, что найти принадлежащую Хейлу копию ключа будет очень трудно.

 - Она выдержала паузу.  - Постараюсь побыстрее. - А лучше еще быстрее.

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2 Comments

  1. Scoville D.

    Maintenance, Management, and Inspection Strategies (Pages: ) · Summary · PDF · Request permissions.

    07.06.2021 at 13:47 Reply
  2. Polidora S.

    Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring helps readers better understand how to effectively monitor, inspect, and evaluate corrosion in order to minimize its costly, destructive impact on processes and equipment.

    15.06.2021 at 08:31 Reply

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