zen buddhism a history india and china pdf

Zen Buddhism A History India And China Pdf

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It developed in China from the 6th century CE onwards, becoming dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties.

Zen Buddhist Rhetoric in China, Korea, and Japan

Finally, it highlights the unique features of DDL and compares them to popular and academic conceptions of Zen Buddhism. Taiwanese Buddhism is one representation, and the most vocal and visible form on a global scale , of Chinese Buddhism as a whole. It was founded in with a acre piece of mountainside land located in Jinshan County in northern Taiwan, about 40 kilometers from Taipei City. Construction of DDM did not begin until the mids. It was not until that the main buildings on the mountain site were completed.

In Sheng Yen created a new Chan lineage, the DDL, to continue its own brand of Buddhist teachings in order to preserve and present Chan Buddhism as a form of moral and spiritual education. This is an important historical development in Chinese and Taiwanese Buddhism, as it had been a thousand years since the creation of a new school of Chan in Chinese Buddhism.

The historical development of Chan in China is an ongoing topic of scholarly discussion. Yet most scholarly literature tends to focus on the formation and flourishing of Chan in premodern periods, based on genealogical records produced by Chan Buddhist clerics themselves.

It also aims to highlight the key features of DDL in contradistinction to popular and academic conceptions of Zen Buddhism. What stands out in this newly constructed DDL is a focus on education, an important feature of Chinese Buddhism in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries Taiwan. This focus on education is a distinct outcome of the impact of the Buddhist reforms and thinkers of the Republican period — The aim of his reformulation was to ensure the survival of Chinese Buddhism in the modern age, but the process of this reformulation was complex and gradual.

In order to appreciate the thought of Sheng Yen and his creation of DDL, it is necessary to provide a larger historical context of the intellectual trajectory of modern Buddhism, to which Sheng Yen was both an heir and a participant. The dynamism of the Republican period marks a paradigm shift in the history of Buddhism in China. It was then that Buddhist clerics and institutions, in response to internal reforms and external secularizing influences of modernization, collectively sought to redefine the public image of Buddhism in society as a viable and valuable part of the Chinese cultural heritage.

The Chinese intellectuals responded to the dire situation of wars, corruption, and the fall of imperial China 2 with intellectual creativity and achievement. Buddhist thinkers during this time responded to this challenging and yet innovative period of Chinese history by focusing on monastic reform through education. He died just before the Republican revolution in October , 4 but his academy produced some of the most brilliant leaders in Chinese Buddhism.

While Sheng Yen was greatly influenced by his predecessors, such as Taixu, on an ideological level, he also differed in significant ways. One was his institutionalization of DDL, establishing his own understanding and teaching of Chan Buddhism into an organization, and his broad promotion of Buddhist education not only for monastics but to include Buddhist studies as an academic field and to reinterpret the very definition of education to subsume all of Chinese Buddhist practices and rituals.

Moreover, from the time he began to write essays on Buddhism, Sheng Yen had always criticized Buddhists who guarded their own sectarian identities. Is DDL a new sect? What were the conditions through which he established DDL? It was due to these reasons that he eventually founded a way to combine his orthodox Buddhism thought and implement it in an institutional form of DDL.

But this process was slow and was the result of historical circumstances in Taiwan. The first is an increase in local folk religious rituals that flourished, as I explain below, under a market transaction model. The second is an increase in organized, universalist religions that resemble Western religions with modern sensibilities. These two kinds of religious trends appear to contradict one another—one obscures traditional moral values and the other advocates them.

The establishment of the DDL is a response to these challenges in a modernizing society. The term minjian xinyang is not necessarily a pejorative term as used by modern Buddhist clerics, Taiwanese academics, and government officials. The important point here is that these traditions have stymied the predictions that market modernity would lead to an inevitable secularization. The existence of these traditions was not the issue of concern for Sheng Yen; rather, he was concerned about the ambivalent moral values espoused indirectly by some exceptional folk religions that would destabilize society and influence Buddhism.

In the s and s, Taiwan achieved significant monetary wealth for the first time, but it was a wealth that rested on capricious market economies. These cultic traditions flourished on an economy of material exchange. As many temples and shrines were becoming integrated into the capitalist mainstream, appealing increasingly to individuals rather than kin groups or local communities, and in which temples and ritual specialists competed against each other like firms in a market, popular religion that espoused ambivalent values mushroomed.

Traditional community temples used to serve as the base for particular local political factions, whose members would also manage temples. Instead, this influence grew because the influence of community temples was no longer bound to geographical regions or classes of people who voluntarily worshiped deities without regard for territorial or community affiliations.

Since the late s, there also appears to be an increasing although it may be just better publicized social importance of spirit mediums, especially women mediums who exercise their power beyond the limits of folk temple religions.

They are able to cater to the needs of their clientele much more effectively than temple gods by personally prognosticating the future, giving advice about deceased relatives, counseling the sick, healing illness or performing exorcisms, and foretelling the future or even the results of presidential elections.

These mediums are autonomous entrepreneurs. This testifies to the utilitarian function of the gods. The nature of the relationship between the mediums and the gods has also changed. The ambivalent ethos of folk religion in Taiwan is quite evident in popular forms of Buddhism. An example is the profit-oriented Buddhist ritual specialists, whose temples function in similar ways to the folk religions.

Every ritual has a price. Moreover, the growing presence of Tibetan Buddhism, especially of the Kagyu and Nyingma sects, filled this lacuna with something at once exotic and familiar to the Taiwanese. The global networks of Tibetan lamas who devoted much energy to establishing centers around the world also helped in bringing Tibetan Buddhism to Taiwan.

This made Taiwan a frequent destination for many Tibetan teachers. In , with the visit of the Dalai Lama, who was perceived as a religious celebrity, Tibetan Buddhism became more of an exotic spirituality. In this vein, the popularity of Tibetan Buddhism dovetailed nicely with existing religious cultic practices in Taiwan and at the same time fascinated the Taiwanese.

The deities may be different, but the ritual functions were basically the same. These elements have captured the hearts of Taiwanese, who are hungry for worldly benefits amidst the uncertainty of economic prosperity. The Taiwanese were also drawn to the self-conceit of Tibetan Buddhism as having more efficacious rituals and superior doctrinal systems. His impact has led to the general perception among contemporary Chinese Buddhists circles in Taiwan that true Buddhism exists only in early Indian Buddhist texts.

It was in this context, beginning in the late s, that Taiwan welcomed the arrival of South Asian Buddhism and its practice of vipassana. Goenka, to give a series of talks and lead a ten-day vipassana retreat in Taiwan in Two hundred Taiwanese participated in this retreat. Goenka also had a dialogue with Sheng Yen during his visit.

Private Buddhist enterprises for translating Buddhist literature for wide dissemination simply did not happen in mainland China; Buddhism there was still very much controlled by the government. It was an apprehension that people did not appreciate the richness of their own tradition sufficiently to benefit from it. Instead, people turned away from Chinese Buddhism to study other forms of Buddhism. The fact that many Chinese Buddhists subscribe to a bleak view of the future of Chinese Buddhism is also something lamentable.

There would not be any future for Chinese Buddhism if all Chinese Buddhists held such attitudes. As long as either one of them exists, even if Chinese Buddhism is extinguished, Buddhism will still remain in the world. However, I say those words with great pain. In , two events also happened. The Dalai Lama mainly drew from the teachings of the Kagyu and Nyingma traditions in his conversation with Sheng Yen; Sheng Yen drew on the sudden enlightenment tradition of Chan Buddhism.

It was precisely during this time, when Taiwan was captivated by Tibetan Buddhism and vipassana Buddhism, that Sheng Yen completed his commentary on the Record of Illuminating the Principle in time for his dialogue with the Dalai Lama and to secure his own position squarely within Chan Buddhism.

During this process of editing the Record of Illuminating the Principle , he recognized the value of Chan as the best organizing vehicle to comprehensively unify Chinese Buddhism. Writing this commentary gave me the opportunity to survey the whole of Buddhism from the angle of Chan. I feel as if I wrote a Chan Buddhist compendium on the Buddhadharma. Figure 1. Figure 2. The expedient means of Chan methods of practice, part of the last section of Figure 1.

Due to space limitations, I include here Figs. While the flow of the chart, if carefully followed, is self-explanatory, I briefly highlight several main features below. Sheng Yen shows how these main tenets of Chan have a scriptural basis. This can be seen in the way in which under each of these three studies, he explicates a twofold hierarchy of each of the three studies. The three studies is a rubric that constitutes the principle of Chan.

This rubric shows the flexibility, adaptability, and inclusiveness of Chan. Doing so is itself the actualization of buddha-nature—in other words, enlightenment. These two methods are the distinct methods taught in the DDL. I have already discussed these methods in some detail.

These three types of practice are not hierarchical and mutually inclusive. As stated above, when he first taught mozhao in the s, he introduced it as a sudden method of no-method, where one should simply leave behind and put down all deluded thinking and not abide anywhere.

In addition, as seen in the chart, the ultimate goal of mozhao and huatou is to also to leave behind the workings of the deluded, discriminating mind. One thought contains the ten dharma realms. Each dharma realm also contains the ten dharma realms [so there are] one hundred dharma realms. Each dharma realm contains thirty worlds; so one hundred dharma realms contain three thousand worlds. The idea here is the interpenetration and mutual inclusivity of delusion and enlightenment, such that a single moment of thought contains all of reality, which is the foundational thought of Zhiyi.

According to Zhiyi, these are not separate distinct worlds but are experiences in one single reality. In other words, buddhas and human beings are inseparable and mutually inclusive.

The important point is that Sheng Yen in shifted his previous nonsectarian position to squarely identify Chan as the pinnacle of Buddhadharma. I believe this shift was the seed that later germinated into his establishment of a new lineage of DDL in These conditions opened new doors of interpretive opportunities, allowing him to reformulate a form of Chinese Buddhism by institutionalizing a new Chan lineage that promoted values that accorded with the riches of all Chinese Buddhism that could be oriented toward modern education and appeal to contemporary society.

He vigorously advocated the systematic integration of traditional and orthodox Buddhist doctrines and practices into a unified but variegated and doctrinally profound Chan. The doctrinal position of Platform Scripture is the foundation of Chan. Yet popular representation of Chan through the lens of Zen pays little attention to it and instead highlights the form of Chan, characterized by shouts and extemporaneous and iconoclastic behaviors, free from ritual and doctrine that developed in later periods of China.

Chan Buddhism

What distinguished Chan were its novel use of language, its development of new narrative forms, and its valorization of the direct and embodied realization of Buddhist awakening. Appreciating the philosophical dimensions of Chan thus requires some familiarity with Buddhist thought and practice, and the dynamics of their infusion into Chinese culture. Buddhist thought and practice are said to have emerged out of sustained practical commitment to discovering and nullifying the roots of human suffering. Chan Buddhism developed in China as a radical reaffirmation of the primacy of embodied practice, the signal achievement of which came to be envisioned as unwavering attentiveness and responsive virtuosity. In the words of the founder of the Hongzhou lineage of Chan, Mazu Daoyi — , the fruition of Chan practice is a fluid.

The Chan School was strongly influenced by Taoist philosophy , especially Neo-Daoist thought, and developed as a distinct school of Chinese Buddhism. In more recent times, the lowercase "zen" is used when discussing the philosophy and was officially added to the Merriam-Webster dictionary in The practice of Buddhist meditation first entered China through the translations of An Shigao fl. According to John R. McRae the "first explicit statement of the sudden and direct approach that was to become the hallmark of Ch'an religious practice" is associated with the East Mountain School. One concentrates, understands, and is enlightened, all in one undifferentiated practice.

He received his B. Asian Studies and Ph. Buddhist Studies in He specializes in the history of medieval Chinese Buddhism, particularly the emergence of Chinese forms of Buddhism from the interaction between Indian Buddhism and indigenous Chinese culture. Much of his recent research has focused on Buddhist meditation practices, including the history of the transmission on Indian meditation practices to China, the development of distinctly Chinese forms of Buddhist meditation, and Buddhist rituals of confession and atonement.


Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) – Heinrich Dumoulin Zen Buddhism: A History (Japan) – Heinrich Dumoulin Download PDF. back.


Chan Buddhism

Finally, it highlights the unique features of DDL and compares them to popular and academic conceptions of Zen Buddhism. Taiwanese Buddhism is one representation, and the most vocal and visible form on a global scale , of Chinese Buddhism as a whole. It was founded in with a acre piece of mountainside land located in Jinshan County in northern Taiwan, about 40 kilometers from Taipei City. Construction of DDM did not begin until the mids. It was not until that the main buildings on the mountain site were completed.

Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 1: India and China@@@Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 2: Japan.

Эти слова его удивили. Никто никогда не называл Джаббу дураком, свиньей - быть может, но дураком -. - Свою женскую интуицию ты ставишь выше ученых степеней и опыта Джаббы в области антивирусного программирования.

Джабба всплеснул руками. - Ради всего святого. Шифры-убийцы похожи на любые другие - они так же произвольны.

Тогда станет понятно, почему он вручную отключил Следопыта. Через несколько секунд на экране показалась надпись: ОБЪЕКТ НЕ НАЙДЕН Не зная, что искать дальше, она ненадолго задумалась и решила зайти с другой стороны. НАЙТИ: ЗАМОК ЭКРАНА Монитор показал десяток невинных находок - и ни одного намека на копию ее персонального кода в компьютере Хейла. Сьюзан шумно вздохнула. Какими же программами он пользовался .

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5 Comments

  1. David O.

    Although modern scholars and readers have long been familiar with the approaches to meditation of the Chan Zen School that later became so popular throughout East Asia, these earlier and in some ways more pervasive forms of practice have long been overlooked or ignored.

    22.05.2021 at 02:30 Reply
  2. Iberio M.

    Can be downloaded as a.

    22.05.2021 at 11:48 Reply
  3. AndrГ©e F.

    Zen Buddhism: A History. INDIA AND CHINA. WWW. WAND. TO w. HEINRICH DUMOULIN The Practice of Meditation in Indian Buddhism. Nirvana: The Final​.

    24.05.2021 at 04:30 Reply
  4. D-Marie

    How to publish with Brill.

    24.05.2021 at 21:55 Reply
  5. Anthony M.

    ZEN BUDDHISM. A HISTORY. Volume 1. India and China. With a New Supplement on the. Northern School of Chinese Zen. Heinrich Dumoulin. Translated by.

    28.05.2021 at 16:18 Reply

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