File Name: social media and society .zip
- Digital Media and Society
- Review of “Media, Society, World: Social Theory and
- SIMON LINDGREN DIGITAL MEDIA & SOCIETY
- Digital Media and Society
Digital Media and Society
Digital media means any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified, and preserved on digital electronics devices. Digital can be defined as any data represented with a series of digits, and Media refers to a method of broadcasting or communicating information.
Together, digital media refers to any information that is broadcast to us through a screen. Examples of digital media include software , digital images , digital video , video games , web pages and websites , social media , digital data and databases , digital audio such as MP3 , electronic documents and electronic books.
Digital media often contrasts with print media , such as printed books, newspapers and magazines, and other traditional or analog media, such as photographic film , audio tapes or video tapes. Digital media has had a significantly broad and complex impact on society and culture. Combined with the Internet and personal computing , digital media has caused disruptive innovation in publishing, journalism, public relations, entertainment, education, commerce and politics.
Digital media has also posed new challenges to copyright and intellectual property laws, fostering an open content movement in which content creators voluntarily give up some or all of their legal rights to their work. The ubiquity of digital media and its effects on society suggest that we are at the start of a new era in industrial history, called the Information Age , perhaps leading to a paperless society in which all media are produced and consumed on computers.
Codes and information by machines were first conceptualized by Charles Babbage in the early s. Babbage imagined that these codes would give him instructions for his Motor of Difference and Analytical Engine, machines that Babbage had designed to solve the problem of error in calculations. Between and , Ada Lovelace , mathematics, wrote the first instructions for calculating numbers on Babbage engines.
Lovelace's instructions are now believed to be the first computer program. Although the machines were designed to perform analysis tasks, Lovelace anticipated the possible social impact of computers and programming, writing. Though they used machine-readable media, Babbage's engines, player pianos, jacquard looms and many other early calculating machines were themselves analog computers , with physical, mechanical parts.
The first truly digital media came into existence with the rise of digital computers. The first modern, programmable, digital computers, the Manchester Mark 1 and the EDSAC , were independently invented between and They were encoded in binary , a system of ones and zeroes that are combined to make hundreds of characters.
The 1s and 0s of binary are the "digits" of digital media. While digital media did not come into common use until the late 20th century, the conceptual foundation of digital media is traced to the work of scientist and engineer Vannevar Bush and his celebrated essay " As We May Think ," published in The Atlantic Monthly in The owner of the memex, let us say, is interested in the origin and properties of the bow and arrow.
Specifically he is studying why the short Turkish bow was apparently superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex. First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected.
Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and ties the two together. Thus he goes, building a trail of many items. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item. When it becomes evident that the elastic properties of available materials had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on elasticity and tables of physical constants.
He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own. Thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him.
Bush hoped that the creation of this memex would be the work of scientists after World War II. Practical digital multimedia distribution and streaming was made possible by advances in data compression , due to the impractically high memory, storage and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed media. Since the s, computing power and storage capacity have increased exponentially, largely as a result of MOSFET scaling which enables MOS transistor counts to increase at a rapid pace predicted by Moore's law.
Many electronic devices, from digital cameras to drones have the ability to create, transmit and view digital media. Combined with the World Wide Web and the Internet , digital media has transformed 21st century society in a way that is frequently compared to the cultural, economic and social impact of the printing press. The transition has created some uncertainty about definitions. Digital media, new media , multimedia , and similar terms all have a relationship to both the engineering innovations and cultural impact of digital media.
A senior engineer at Motorola named Martin Cooper was the first person to make a phone call on April 3, He decided the first phone call should be to a rival telecommunications company saying "I'm speaking via a mobile phone".
In the early s Nokia came into succession, with their Nokia being the first mass-produced mobile phone. Smartphone users have increased by a lot over the years currently the highest countries with users include China with over million users, India with over million users, and in third place The United States with about million users as of The impact of the digital revolution can also be assessed by exploring the amount of worldwide mobile smart device users there are.
This can be split into 2 categories; smart phone users and smart tablet users. Worldwide there are currently 2. The statistics evidence the impact of digital media communications today. What is also of relevance is the fact that the numbers of smart device users is rising rapidly yet the amount of functional uses increase daily. A smartphone or tablet can be used for hundreds of daily needs. There are currently over 1 million apps on the Apple App store. A smartphone user is impacted with digital advertising every second they open their Apple or Android device.
This further evidences the digital revolution and the impact of revolution. This has resulted in a total of 13 billion dollars being paid out to the various app developers over the years. Most of these apps are able to generate income via in app advertising.
Compared with print media , the mass media , and other analog technologies, digital media are easy to copy, store, share and modify. This quality of digital media has led to significant changes in many industries, especially journalism, publishing, education, entertainment, and the music business. The overall effect of these changes is so far-reaching that it is difficult to quantify. For example, in movie-making, the transition from analog film cameras to digital cameras is nearly complete.
The transition has economic benefits to Hollywood, making distribution easier and making it possible to add high-quality digital effects to films. In journalism, digital media and citizen journalism have led to the loss of thousands of jobs in print media and the bankruptcy of many major newspapers.
In academia, digital media has led to a new form of scholarship, also called digital scholarship , making open access and open science possible thanks to the low cost of distribution. New fields of study have grown, such as digital humanities and digital history.
It has changed the way libraries are used and their role in society. Often time the magazine or publisher have a Digital edition which can be referred to an electronic formatted version identical to the print version.
Since , there has been a decrease in newspaper industry employment, with only about 40, people working in the workforce currently. Digital media has also allowed individuals to be much more active in content creation. The dramatic reduction in the costs required to create and share content have led to a democratization of content creation as well as the creation of new types of content, like blogs , memes and video essays. Some of these activities have also been labelled citizen journalism.
This spike in user created content is due to the development of the internet as well as the way in which users interact with media today. The release of technologies such mobile devices allow for easier and quicker access to all things media.
The cost of devices that can access the Internet is steadily falling, and personal ownership of multiple digital devices is now becoming the standard. These elements have significantly affected political participation. Over the years YouTube has grown to become a website with user generated media. This content is oftentimes not mediated by any company or agency, leading to a wide array of personalities and opinions online.
Over the years YouTube and other platforms have also shown their monetary gains, as the top 10 YouTube performers generating over 10 million dollars each year. Many of these YouTube profiles over the years have a multi camera set up as we would see on TV.
Many of these creators also creating their own digital companies as their personalities grow. Personal devices have also seen an increase over the years.
Over 1. User-generated content raises issues of privacy, credibility, civility and compensation for cultural, intellectual and artistic contributions. The spread of digital media, and the wide range of literacy and communications skills necessary to use it effectively, have deepened the digital divide between those who have access to digital media and those who don't.
The rising of digital media has made the consumer's audio collection more precise and personalized. It is no longer necessary to purchase an entire album if the consumer is ultimately interested in only a few audio files. See also: Web television , streaming television. With the loss of viewers, there is a loss of revenue but not as bad as what would be expected.
Digital media  pose several challenges to the current copyright and intellectual property laws. Over the last decade the concept of fair use has been applied to many online medias. Copyright challenges have gotten to all parts of digital media. Even as a personal content creator on YouTube, they must be careful and follow the guidelines set by copyright and IP laws.
As YouTube creators very easily get demonetized for their content. Most times this has to do with accidnelty using a copyrighted audio track or background scenes that are copyright by another company. To resolve some of these issues, content creators can voluntarily adopt open or copyleft licenses, giving up some of their legal rights, or they can release their work to the public domain.
Open licenses are part of a broader open content movement that pushes for the reduction or removal of copyright restrictions from software, data and other digital media. Additional software has been developed in order to restrict access to digital media. For example, DRM allows a movie producer to rent a movie at a lower price than selling the movie, restricting the movie rental license length, rather than only selling the movie at full price.
Additionally, DRM can prevent unauthorized sharing or modification of media. Digital Media is numerical, networked and interactive system of links and databases that allows us to navigate from one bit of content or webpage to another. One form of digital media that is becoming a phenomenon is in the form of an online magazine or digital magazine. What exactly is a digital magazine? Due to the economic importance of digital magazines, the Audit Bureau of Circulations integrated the definition of this medium in its latest report March : a digital magazine involves the distribution of a magazine content by electronic means; it may be a replica.
Review of “Media, Society, World: Social Theory and
Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used as measured by the PREPS grading system. We undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability. In what ways have selfies introduced new elements into social interaction? What does it mean that selfies are a technology of the self?
Social media use in politics refers to the use of online social media platforms in political processes and activities. Political processes and activities include all activities that pertain to the governance of a country or area. This includes political organization , global politics , political corruption , political parties , and political values. The internet has created channels of communication that play a key role in circulating news, and social media has the power to change not just the message, but the dynamics of political corruption, values, and the dynamics of conflict in politics. Social media have been championed as allowing anyone with an Internet connection to become a content creator  and empowering their users.
PDF | On Mar 21, , Waseem Akram published A Study on Positive and Negative Effects of Social Media on Society | Find, read and cite all.
SIMON LINDGREN DIGITAL MEDIA & SOCIETY
Summary: The Annual Editions series is designed to provide convenient inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. Each Annual Editions volume has a number of features designed to make them especially valuable for classroom use; including a brief overview for each unit, as well as Learning Outcomes, Critical Thinking questions, and Internet References to accompany each article.
Digital media means any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified, and preserved on digital electronics devices. Digital can be defined as any data represented with a series of digits, and Media refers to a method of broadcasting or communicating information. Together, digital media refers to any information that is broadcast to us through a screen.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Referencing key contemporary debates on issues like surveillance, identity, the global financial crisis, the digital divide and Internet politics, Andrew White provides a critical intervention in discussions on the impact of the proliferation of digital media technologies on politics, the economy and social practices.
Digital Media and Society
Todd saw she was sick and got very angry. Any resemblance to actual persons, living or dead, business establishments, events, or locales is entirely coincidental. Thank you also for your vision and your tireless efforts to make it grow and prosper. There is no better teacher, gentle critic, friend, and editor. Thank you Shelley for your invaluable help and for your patience as we make our way through these stories.
Back to Publication. Abstract of the Chapter - Media and Democratization in the Information Society, by Marc Raboy Globalization and the technological and economic advances that have accompanied it have been marked by a number of tendencies with mixed implications for the media. This chapter examines the impact of these changes on the role played by the media in the democratization of societies. Privatization and liberalization carried the promise of more channels, but this has not resulted in a broader and more pluralistic media. The breakdown of state monopolies on broadcasting has had a positive impact in many developing countries, but in many others the state monopolies have merely been replaced by private ones with equally suspect aims.
Since then, researchers across disciplines have been actively examining the impact of social media on society. According to Web of Science, there are currently.
Social media comprises communication websites that facilitate relationship forming between users from diverse backgrounds, resulting in a rich social structure. User generated content encourages inquiry and decision-making. Given the relevance of social media to various stakeholders, it has received significant attention from researchers of various fields, including information systems.
The purpose of this chapter is to define media, society and culture broadly. Chapters 2 and 3 deal with communication theory in more detail. Digital culture is covered in depth in Chapter 2. There are different forms of communication.
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