# Waves And Optics Notes Pdf

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It begins with explaining ideas of superposition of harmonic oscillations leading to the physics of traveling and standing waves. The course also provides an in-depth understanding of wave phenomena of light, namely, interference and diffraction with emphasis on practical applications of the same. Sc, B. Tech, M. Tech branch to enhance more knowledge about the subject and to score better marks in the exam.

Linearity and Superposition Principle. Superposition of two collinear oscillations having 1 equal frequencies and 2 different frequencies Beats. Superposition of N collinear Harmonic Oscillations with 1 equal phase differences and 2 equal frequency differences. Lissajous Figures with equal and unequal frequencies and their uses. Longitudinal and Transverse Waves. Plane Progressive Travelling Waves.

Wave Equation. Particle and Wave Velocities. Pressure of a Longitudinal Wave. Energy Transport. Intensity of Wave. Analytical Treatment. Phase and Group Velocities. Changes with respect to Position and Time. Energy of Vibrating String. Transfer of Energy. Normal Modes of Stretched Strings. Longitudinal Standing Waves and Normal Modes. Open and Closed Pipes. Superposition of N Harmonic Waves.

Definition and properties of wave front. Huygens Principle. Temporal and Spatial Coherence. Interference in Thin Films: parallel and wedge-shaped films. Fabry-Perot interferometer. Fraunhofer diffraction : Single slit. Rectangular and Circular aperture, Resolving Power of a telescope. Double slit. Multiple slits. Diffraction grating. Resolving power of grating. Explanation of Rectilinear Propagation of Light. Straight edge, a slit and a wire.

## Wave Optics Class 12 Notes

It begins with explaining ideas of superposition of harmonic oscillations leading to the physics of traveling and standing waves. The course also provides an in-depth understanding of wave phenomena of light, namely, interference and diffraction with emphasis on practical applications of the same. Sc, B. Tech, M. Tech branch to enhance more knowledge about the subject and to score better marks in the exam. Linearity and Superposition Principle.

Further, they are all designed with the latest academic year subject material so that any difference in the syllabus is accounted for as well. Together, students will be prepared to answer every type of question like subjective and objective and aim for the best in their last year of school. These main subjects can be very complicated for students and the revision notes for every chapter will allow them to have an expert studying pattern with which they can achieve so much better and also enjoy studying the subject. With the help of revision notes students can revise the syllabus in a concise manner. Short keynotes for Class 12 also contain colour diagrams. Because of colour diagrams, it becomes very simple to understand the concept applied while showing and explaining the topics.

List the rules for ray tracking for thin lenses. Our lives are filled with light. Explain reflection of light from polished and rough surfaces. Why do diamonds sparkle? Physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid.

## optics physics pdf

Wave optics describes the connection between waves and rays of light. According to wave theory of light, the light is a form of energy which travels through a medium in the form of transverse wave motion. The speed of light in a medium depends upon the nature of medium. By Login, you agree to our Terms and Privacy Policies. Forgot Password?

Choose P1 and P2 as opposing points on the surfaces of the glass. We would like to measure the change in optical length as a means of measuring the pressure. Using techniques based on interference, which we discuss later, we can measure changes in optical length well below one wavelength. How wide must the pipe be, in order to have a change in optical length equal to one wavelength when the pressure changes from atmospheric to vacuum? Let L 0 be the optical length with vacuum and L 1 be the optical length with atmospheric air.

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### Wave Optics Class 12 Notes

Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light , including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Because light is an electromagnetic wave , other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays , microwaves , and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for by using the classical electromagnetic description of light.

These laws were formed to support wavelength properties, some of which are mentioned below. Polarisation phenomenon based transverse light and electromagnetic waves. The diffraction phenomenon supporting HuygensFresnel principle.

Gaussian Optics-Simple formulas for focusing lasers When focusing a laser it is important to use an analysis with Gaussian optics and beams. Mirror Formula 3. The Physics formulas are prepared considering exams and their difficulty level. Physics comprises of various typical numerical based on length formulas. Archimedes and other ancient Greek thinkers made original contributions but we mention here Heron of Alexandria c.

Waves in two dimensions: Wave fronts; Huygens' principle; reflection and refraction of waves;. 5. Sound waves: Vibrating systems and sources of sound: vibrations.

This third volume of the series Lectures in Optics provides a comprehensive presentation of the wave optics effects. The arguments underlying the concept of light—as either a wave or a particle—were part of the greatest revolution in physics, which, in the early 20th century, bore modern quantum and atomic optics. These fundamental advances set the stage for a crucial outcome, the laser. The latter two effects are perhaps the greatest manifestations of the wave nature of light and provide an excellent demonstration of the power and simplicity of Fourier optics.

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PDF generated: October 25, For copyright Reflection and Transmission of Mechanical Waves. instrument will play specific notes.