linguistic and literacy development of child and adolescent pdf

Linguistic And Literacy Development Of Child And Adolescent Pdf

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During early childhood, children's abilities to understand, to process, and to produce language also flourish in an amazing way. Young children experience a language explosion between the ages of 3 and 6. At age 3, their spoken vocabularies consist of roughly words. By age 6, spoken vocabularies expand dramatically to anywhere between 8, and 14, words.

Language Development in Middle Childhood: Ages 9–13

The number of children living in the United States who are learning two languages is increasing greatly. However, relatively little research has been conducted on the language and literacy development of dual language learners DLLs , particularly during the early childhood years. To summarize the extant literature and guide future research, a critical analysis of the literature was conducted. A search of major databases for studies on young typically developing DLLs between — yielded peer-reviewed articles.

Much of these findings should be considered preliminary, because there were few areas where multiple studies were conducted. Conclusions were reached when sufficient evidence existed in a particular area. First, the research shows that DLLs have two separate language systems early in life. Second, differences in some areas of language development, such as vocabulary, appear to exist among DLLs depending on when they were first exposed to their second language.

Methodological issues are addressed, and directions for future research are discussed. Much research has examined the language and literacy development of children learning one language. Unfortunately, insufficient attention has been paid to the language and literacy development of children learning two languages or dual language learners DLLs , particularly during the early childhood years.

This percentage is expected to increase over the next several decades. Children learning two languages vary widely in their early experiences with their two languages. As a result, they are extremely heterogeneous in the language and early literacy abilities they possess when they enter kindergarten.

There is particular reason to be concerned about DLLs in this regard. On average, children in the U. Furthermore, DLLs have a unique opportunity to become proficient bilinguals as adults and enjoy the attendant cognitive, social, and economic benefits Bialystok, Such information will assist educators, researchers, and policy makers in understanding the developmental trajectories of DLLs and can be used to help understand when DLLs have learning concerns. Therefore, this manuscript presents the results of a critical review of the research literature from — on the early language and literacy development of DLLs.

More recently, Dixon and colleagues synthesized information from four bodies of work: foreign language education, child language research, sociocultural studies, and psycholinguistics to highlight an integrated understanding across typically isolated perspectives on the optimal conditions for second language acquisition. Studies included in the review targeted children of various ages from preschool through twelfth grade. Therefore, this critical review fills an important need by analyzing the recent research literature on the language and literacy development of DLLs from birth through age five.

For the purposes of the critical literature review on language and literacy development, dual language learners were broadly defined as children who were exposed to two languages during early childhood Bialystok, This includes children who were exposed to two languages from birth as well as children who were exposed to their second language sometime during the preschool years.

There are two primary reasons for this inclusive definition. First, the research community has not developed an agreed upon definition of who is a dual language learner. Therefore, many valuable studies would have been excluded from the review if a strict definition of DLL were applied.

These included the following: published peer-reviewed journal articles from —; a focus on typically-developing DLLs from birth through five years of age with studies focusing only on kindergarteners excluded ; a measurement plan that included at least one assessment point during this age span; analyses that focused on DLLs either exclusively or as a subgroup; and research designs that included case study, descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal, and qualitative methods.

Note that on a few occasions, findings on older children are reported when a study compared data on preschoolers as well as on older children. In these instances, the findings on preschoolers would be meaningless without a discussion of the findings on children of older ages.

Prior to searching the literature, a list of key search terms was developed by the team, which consisted of the four authors of this paper. The terms were divided into 40 superordinate terms or primary search terms and subordinate or secondary terms. The superordinate terms consisted of terms that focused on the targeted population e. The subordinate terms consisted of terms specific to contemporary academic vocabulary in the fields of language and literacy development, as well as terms that captured the influence of home and family on these areas of development.

There were 78 language terms e. Next, a systematic search protocol was followed using both superordinate and subordinate search terms. Multiple searches were run across the major academic databases to identify all possible national and international articles that were available through search engines commonly used in the United States.

The search was limited to journals published in English that were available through these search engines. The searches returned 3, unique citations published in English-language journals.

Each citation was passed through multiple levels of review. An abstract was printed for every citation returned in the database search. Following this, full articles were obtained and sent to members of the research team. Team members then read the articles in their assigned areas e. A decision was made by consensus about whether or not the article should be included.

To assist with the critical review, information from each article was coded and entered into a table. Three graduate students in Communication Sciences and Disorders were trained on the coding procedures and were closely supervised by the first author, who met with the students on a weekly basis.

Once the students completed the initial portion of the table, the table was shared with the members of the research team. Each team member assumed responsibility for articles within her area of expertise. The table is provided in the online supplemental material to this manuscript. Before summarizing the findings, a brief discussion about terminology is needed. First, it should be pointed out that a number of terms were used to refer to children who were learning two languages in the studies included in this review, such as DLLs, bilinguals, English language learners, and second language learners.

For consistency, we decided to use DLL when summarizing the specific findings of the studies. Preschooler refers to children from three through five years of age.

The samples found in the articles varied in terms of the languages spoken, DLL status and socio-demographic characteristics.

The dialect of Spanish varied among studies, although a large number of studies did not identify the dialect spoken by the children. Two studies focused on indigenous languages, with one focusing on children learning Inuktitut, and another study focusing on Lajamanu Warlpiri and Light Warlpiri.

Note that an article could include two to three groups of DLLs who spoke different languages. As alluded to earlier, the studies reviewed focused on children who were labeled using a variety of terms, including, but not limited to dual language learners, English language learners, bilingual children, Spanish-speaking children, etc.

Consistent definitions of the various terms were not used, and in some cases, specific criteria were not established when labeling children. Children were simply labeled with the term chosen by the authors without further definition.

The samples also varied with regard to their socio-economic status SES , although the SES of the children was not always specified. With regard to articles on samples from outside the U. However, the SES of the children was not always provided. There was a subset of national and international studies that focused on immigrant populations, which typically involved children of lower SES and who spoke a minority language.

The studies employed a variety of research designs. The studies reviewed focused on a wide range of research questions. In addition, the studies addressed theoretical questions about bilingualism, including the influence of dual language exposure on early speech perception, whether DLL children develop one or two language systems, and whether there is transfer of knowledge from one linguistic system to the other.

Often, studies compared the development of DLL children to monolingual children, either directly or indirectly through the use of standardized tests normed on monolingual children. The discussion of the literature published on dual language learners from birth through age five is organized around the following aspects of language: language processing including behavioral and neurophysiological measures , vocabulary development, word learning processes, semantic development, oral comprehension, grammatical development, and pragmatic development.

Three studies were categorized as investigations of language processing in DLLs. The findings revealed a faster speed of processing of known words as indicated by shorter latency of evoked response potential ERP relative to the latency of response to unknown words. In addition, faster processing of known words was found for children who were more advanced on a composite language measure compared to children with less advanced language. The second study provided additional evidence that DLLs are more efficient at processing the language they hear more and know better.

In this study, children were presented with a familiar word aurally and shown two pictures, one of which corresponded to the word that was spoken. The time it took children for to look at the correct picture was then measured. Monolingual children outperformed DLL children on six of the eight processing tasks; however, minimal information was provided about the language experiences of the DLL children. Most of these studies were conducted with populations outside the U.

In contrast, the majority of investigations involving preschoolers focused on speech sound development and were conducted primarily with Spanish-English DLLs living in the United States. The research focusing on infants finds no difference between DLLs and monolinguals in their ability to distinguish between two different languages.

This means that they discriminate sounds that are different phonemes in the ambient language, but they no longer discriminate between different sounds that do not mark a difference in meaning. Infants exposed to two languages are able to discriminate the sound contrasts of both their languages at the end of their first year. However, studies that focused on the course of development yield different results depending on: a the particular language pairs the infants hear, b the sound contrasts that are under study, and c the measure of discrimination used.

During this intermediary stage, DLL infants appear not to discriminate between contrasts in one of their languages. For example, one study that used brain measures of phonetic discrimination i. Evidence of neural discrimination of contrasts did not occur until to months of age in DLLs Garcia-Sierra et al. It is thought that this U-shaped pattern may occur because children exposed to two languages require more time to accumulate sufficient data to discriminate the two sets of phonetic categories they must learn.

In contrast, other investigations have shown that DLL infants are able to maintain their abilities to discriminate sounds between 8- and months of age and do not show the U-shaped pattern. Another study suggested that if the two languages a DLL infant hears are rhythmically different--as in Spanish and English, then DLL infants maintain their ability to differentiate different phonetic categories like monolinguals. Another study of infant word learning found that DLL infants accommodate phonetic variation i.

Many of the studies involved samples of 10 or fewer DLLs. During the preschool years, DLL children catch up to their monolingual peers in their ability to produce speech sounds. Sequential language learners, or children who began learning their second language after age three, appear to use their knowledge of their L1 to aid them in acquiring the phonological system of their L2 Anderson, The opposite was observed by Brice et al.

Brice and colleagues concluded that this finding might be due to the amount of English to which the children had been exposed. Studies also compared the speech sound accuracy and complexity of DLL and monolingual children. The findings were inconclusive. In sum, the evidence is clear that infants exposed to two languages can discriminate one language from the other and can learn the sound contrasts used by both, although questions remain about their developmental trajectories.

Studies involving preschoolers compared the development of monolingual and DLL children, sequential and simultaneous learners, and older and younger children. Most of the investigations discussed were conducted in the United States or Canada, with three conducted in Europe.

Language Development in Middle Childhood: Ages 9–13

Language Development and Education pp Cite as. Roughly speaking, the years of middle childhood are considered to be from 9 to 12 or 13 years. The developmental changes that occur in both linguistic and cognitive achievements as well as physical development over this period are dramatic. Cognitive and linguistic progress, on the surface, is not as dramatic as physical and social development. This last aspect, social maturation, has the greatest impact on both linguistic and cognitive development. These developments can be used to great advantage by educators. Children become aware of the strategies they use to solve problems, and begin to use them with greater deliberation.

Linguistic and literacy development of children and adolescents MEM CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT 2 theory,​ [Accessed 12 August ].

The Language and Literacy Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review

Language and literacy development are major domains of early childhood development. They involve development of the skills used to communicate with others through languages language development , as well as the ability to read and write literacy development. An example of language and literacy development in childhood learning is to speak the native language of one's parents and read basic words in that language.

As children enter school, they are expected to use these newly developed language skills as tools for learning and social negotiation. Spoken language competence involves several systems. Children must master a system for representing meaning, and acquire a facility with the forms of language, ranging from the sound structure of words to the grammatical structure of sentences. This knowledge must be joined with their social competence. Much of this learning is accomplished without formal instruction, and what is known is largely tacit in nature.

Language development and literacy

Learning to understand, use and enjoy language is the first step in literacy , and the basis for learning to read and write. In their first few years, children develop many of the oral language skills that help them to learn to read when they go to school. And they keep developing language skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Talking with your child From birth, talk with your child and treat them as a talker.

Preliminary evidence suggests that bilingual children from low-income backgrounds initially perform poorly on phonological awareness and letter identification tasks, but appear to acquire these abilities quickly in kindergarten once these abilities are emphasized in early reading instruction. Educational implications for serving young, bilingual children from programs such as Head Start are discussed. Children are exposed to language and literacy events at home and preschool that support their reading development. Statistics from the U. Department of Education demonstrate that Latino children are at risk for poor literacy outcomes National Center for Education Statistics, This trend continues as children progress through school. Latino children have reading abilities below the mainstream population in Grades 4, 8, and 12 U.

The number of children living in the United States who are learning two languages is increasing greatly. However, relatively little research has been conducted on the language and literacy development of dual language learners DLLs , particularly during the early childhood years. To summarize the extant literature and guide future research, a critical analysis of the literature was conducted. A search of major databases for studies on young typically developing DLLs between — yielded peer-reviewed articles.

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For babies and children, they come to know these tools and develop at a varying rate.

Чатрукьяну была известна история ее создания. Несмотря на все предпринятые в конце 1970-х годов усилия министерства обороны сохранить Интернет для себя, этот инструмент оказался настолько соблазнительным, что не мог не привлечь к себе внимания всего общества. Со временем им заинтересовались университеты, а вскоре после этого появились и коммерческие серверы.

Его подхватила новая волна увлечения криптографией. Он писал алгоритмы и зарабатывал неплохие деньги. Как и большинство талантливых программистов, Танкада сделался объектом настойчивого внимания со стороны АНБ.

Может быть, он сражается с вирусом. Джабба захохотал.

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