design and construction of uninterruptible power supply pdf

Design And Construction Of Uninterruptible Power Supply Pdf

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The full form of the UPS is an uninterruptible power source or uninterruptible power supply. It is an electrical device, gives emergency power to various loads when the input power typically fails.


To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Oderinde Tolulope. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment 4.

Instability of the mains frequency 5. Harmonic distortion, defined as a departure from the ideal sinusoidal waveform expected on the line UPS units are divided into categories based on which of the above problems they address, [dubious -discuss] and some manufacturers categorize their products in accordance with the number of power-related problems they address.

A lineinteractive UPS maintains the inverter in line and redirects the battery's DC current path from the normal charging mode to supplying current when power is lost. In a standby "off-line" system the load is powered directly by the input power and the backup power circuitry is only invoked when the utility power fails.

Most UPS below 1 kVA are of the line-interactive or standby variety which are usually less expensive. Energy is stored in a flywheel.

When the mains power fails, an eddy-current regulation maintains the power on the load as long as the flywheel's energy is not exhausted. DUPS are sometimes combined or integrated with a diesel generator that is turned on after a brief delay, forming a diesel rotary uninterruptible power supply DRUPS. A fuel cell UPS has been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source, potentially providing long run times in a small space.

Typical protection time: minutes. The protected equipment is normally connected directly to incoming utility power. When the incoming voltage falls below or rises above a predetermined level the SPS turns on its internal DC-AC inverter circuitry, which is powered from an internal storage battery. The switchover time can be as long as 25 milliseconds depending on the amount of time it takes the standby UPS to detect the lost utility voltage. The UPS will be designed to power certain equipment, such as a personal computer, without any objectionable dip or brownout to that device.

Capacity expansion: Several hoursThe line-interactive UPS is similar in operation to a standby UPS, but with the addition of a multi-tap variable-voltage autotransformer. This is a special type of transformer that can add or subtract powered coils of wire, thereby increasing or decreasing the magnetic field and the output voltage of the transformer.

This is also known as a Buck-boost transformer. This type of UPS is able to tolerate continuous undervoltage brownouts and overvoltage surges without consuming the limited reserve battery power. It instead compensates by automatically selecting different power taps on the autotransformer.

Depending on the design, changing the autotransformer tap can cause a very brief output power disruption, [6] which may cause UPSs equipped with a power-loss alarm to "chirp" for a moment.

This has become popular even in the cheapest UPSs because it takes advantage of components already included. The difference between the two voltages is because charging a battery requires a delta voltage up to V for charging a 12 V battery.

Furthermore, it is easier to do the switching on the line-voltage side of the transformer because of the lower currents on that side. The battery can still be charged while "bucking" an overvoltage, but while "boosting" an undervoltage, the transformer output is too low to charge the batteries. Autotransformers can be engineered to cover a wide range of varying input voltages, but this requires more taps and increases complexity, and expense of the UPS. It is common for the autotransformer to cover a range only from about 90 V to V for V power, and then switch to battery if the voltage goes much higher or lower than that range.

In low-voltage conditions the UPS will use more current than normal so it may need a higher current circuit than a normal device. This also works in reverse, so that in an overvoltage condition, the UPS will need less current.

When power loss occurs, the rectifier simply drops out of the circuit and the batteries keep the power steady and unchanged. When power is restored, the rectifier resumes carrying most of the load and begins charging the batteries, though the charging current may be limited to prevent the high-power rectifier from overheating the batteries and boiling off the electrolyte.

The main advantage of an on-line UPS is its ability to provide an "electrical firewall" between the incoming utility power and sensitive electronic equipment.

The online UPS is ideal for environments where electrical isolation is necessary or for equipment that is very sensitive to power fluctuations. Although it was at one time reserved for very large installations of 10 kW or more, advances in technology have now permitted it to be available as a common consumer device, supplying W or less. The initial cost of the online UPS may be higher, but its total cost of ownership is generally lower due to longer battery life.

The online UPS may be necessary when the power environment is "noisy", when utility power sags, outages and other anomalies are frequent, when protection of sensitive IT equipment loads is required, or when operation from an extended-run backup generator is necessary.

It is called a double-conversion UPS due to the rectifier directly driving the inverter, even when powered from normal AC current. The working principle of ups 1.

The working principle of UPS From basic principles in terms of application, UPS is a device that contains stored energy in order to inverter as the main component, regulated stable frequency output power protection equipment. Mainly by the rectifier, batteries, power inverters and static switch of several components.

It has two main functions: First, the alternating current AC into direct current DC , through the supply of filtered load, or the supply inverter; second, to provide battery charging voltage. Therefore, it is also play a role in charger. Its main function is: When the electricity is normal, the energy converted into chemical energy stored in the battery internal; when the electricity fails, the chemical energy into electrical energy provided to the inverter or the load.

It consists of inverter bridge control logic and filter circuit. Conversion and the model is divided into two kinds of type and. Conversion-type switch is mainly used for two-way power supply system, its role is to achieve all the way to another road from the automatic switching; and model switch is mainly used for parallel inverters with electricity or more inverter.

UPS maintenance and repair The use of an uninterruptible power supply system in the process, people tend to one-sided view that is maintenance-free battery and not take this seriously. Thus, to enhance the proper use of the UPS batteries and maintenance, to extend the battery life, lower failure rate UPS systems, has become increasingly important. In addition to matching the regular brand batteries other than the following aspects should be the proper use and maintenance of batteries: 1 Maintain the appropriate environmental temperature: an important factor affecting battery life 4.

Although the temperature of the battery discharge capacity has increased, but the cost is the battery life significantly shortened. UPS is currently used batteries are generally maintenancefree sealed lead-acid battery, universal design life is 5 years, which is required in battery manufacturers environment can be achieved.

Not reach specified environmental requirements, the length of their life there is a huge difference. In addition, the ambient temperature increase will lead to increased chemical activity within the battery, resulting in a lot of heat, in turn prompted ambient temperature, this vicious cycle will accelerate to shorten battery life. In this context, the battery discharge current will not over-discharge.

UPS due to long-term and electricity connected, in the supply of high quality, rare use of mains power failure environment, the battery will be a long period of float charge state, the course of time will cause the battery chemical energy and electrical energy conversion activity decreased with each other to accelerate the shorten the life of aging.

Therefore, generally every months should be fully discharged once, discharge time can be battery capacity and load size of the set. After a full load discharge, according to the provisions of recharge for more than 8 hours. In large business environments where reliability is of great importance, a single huge UPS can also be a single point of failure that can disrupt many other systems.

To provide greater reliability, multiple smaller UPS modules and batteries can be integrated together to provide redundant power protection equivalent to one very large UPS. In this way, failure of one module will not impact system operation. This is a critical point -each power supply must be able to power the entire server by itself.

Redundancy is further enhanced by plugging each power supply into a different circuit i. Redundant protection can be extended further yet by connecting each power supply to its own UPS.

This provides double protection from both a power supply failure and a UPS failure, so that continued operation is assured. If the budget does not allow for two identical UPS units then it is common practice to plug one power supply into mains power and the other into the UPS. Factors such as temperature, humidity, rain, and snow among others should be considered by the manufacturer when designing an outdoor UPS system.

Outdoor environment could mean extreme cold, in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a battery heater mat, or extreme heat, in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a fan system or an air conditioning system. Internal Generators: Electronic Generator An electronic generator is the same as the off-line UPS system except for one difference that switching time from the mains supply to battery driven inverter supply will not be small over 10 ms for the electronic generator.

Also, the electronic generators will run for longer time 1 to The IC is configured so that its outputs produce and repeat a set of five sequential logic high outputs. Since the input Is a square wave the outputs are also generated as square waves. This is done through a couple of relays RL1 and RL2; RL2 has a dual set of contacts for reversing both the output lines. As explained above an UPS should also incorporate a built-in universal smart battery charger which also should be voltage and current controlled.

The next figure which is an integral part of the system shows a smart little automatic battery The circuit is not only voltage controlled but is also includes an over current protection configuration. Transistor T1 and T2 basically form an accurate voltage sensor and never allows the charging voltage upper limit to exceed the set limit.

This limit is fixed by setting the preset P1 appropriately. The basic computer-to-UPS control methods are intended for one-to-one signaling from a single source to a single target. Similarly, the USB protocol is also intended to connect a single computer to multiple peripheral devices. In some situations it is useful for a single large UPS to be able to communicate with several protected devices. For traditional serial or USB control, a signal replication device may be used, which for example allows one UPS to connect to five computers using serial or USB connections.

Return control signals may only be permitted from one of the protected systems to the UPS. Batteries Battery cabinetThe run-time for a battery-operated UPS depends on the type and size of batteries and rate of discharge, and the efficiency of the inverter.

The total capacity of a lead-acid battery is a function of the rate at which it is discharged, which is described as Peukert's law. Manufacturers supply run-time rating in minutes for packaged UPS systems. Larger systems such as for data centers require detailed calculation of the load, inverter efficiency, and battery characteristics to ensure the required endurance is attained.

With time, the charge stored in the chemicals at the interface, often called "interface charge", spreads by diffusion of these chemicals throughout the volume of the active material. If a battery has been completely discharged e.

The battery voltage may rise to be close to the charger voltage so that the charging current decreases significantly. After a few hours this interface charge will spread to the volume of the electrode and electrolyte, leading to an interface charge so low that it may be insufficient to start a car. In lead acid batteries this is known as sulfation but also affects other types such as nickel cadmium batteries and lithium batteries.


Another interesting thing in the UPS is that it does not need any external charger for charging the battery when it goes low, it have already built charger inside the UPS when there is light it will be charging the battery. They are divided into various sections, which are. An oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces an output signal without any applied external input signal. The inverter Not Circuit performs a basic logic function called inversion or complementation. The oscillator has two output terminals each of the switching circuits is coupled to the two output terminals of the oscillator respectively. This is elaborated in the subsequent chapter. This section produces all the required controls needed to meet up with the main aim of the entire system.

An uninterruptible power supply UPS , also known as a battery backup, provides backup power when your regular power source fails or voltage drops to an unacceptable level. A UPS allows for the safe, orderly shutdown of a computer and connected equipment. The size and design of a UPS determine how long it will supply power. Different UPS topologies provide specific levels of power protection. A CyberPower UPS will belong to one of these three topologies: standby, line interactive, and double-conversion.

AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Keywords: Power interruption, emergency supply, battery, inverter, automatic control. Abstract The interruption of power supply is a source of concern to the consumer, and gives rise to the need to provide emergency power source in some important areas of both domestic and industrial application. In this work, we made use of solid state components, with the aid of background knowledge in the field of electronics, to locally manufacture a UPS which could be used for back-up power for critical and essential loads.

Design, Construction and Testing of an Uninterruptible Power Supply of 300 Watts Capacity

Another interesting thing in the UPS is that it does not need any external charger for charging the battery when it goes low, it have already built charger inside the UPS when there is light it will be charging the battery. They are divided into various sections, which are 1. An oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces an output signal without any applied external input signal.

Chat With Us — WhatsApp. Get your Design And Construction Of Uninterruptible Power Supply similar content ready in pdf or doc format and click on 'upload work' button. Another interesting thing in the UPS is that it does not need any external charger for charging the battery when it goes low, it have already built charger inside the UPS when there is light it will be charging the battery.


AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution.

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Любовь и честь были забыты. Мечта, которой он жил все эти годы, умерла. Он никогда не получит Сьюзан Флетчер.

И все же Сьюзан понимала, что остановить Хейла могут только его представления о чести и честности. Она вспомнила об алгоритме Попрыгунчик. Один раз Грег Хейл уже разрушил планы АНБ.

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Он дернул шнурок в третий раз, более резко. И снова. - На маршруте двадцать семь их отсоединяют.

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