raw milk drinking and risk to pathogenic microorganisms phd thesis pdf

Raw Milk Drinking And Risk To Pathogenic Microorganisms Phd Thesis Pdf

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Helicobacter pylori H. The routes of infection have not yet been firmly established, and different routes of transmission have been suggested, although the most commonly accepted hypothesis is that infection takes place through the faecal-oral route and that contaminated water and foods might play an important role in transmission of the microorganism to humans.

Whey proteins and their antimicrobial properties in donkey milk: a brief review

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Tenzin Dorji. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Milk is an integral part of nutrition and primary source of food and potential income generating activity for most farmers. Good production and herd management practices help ensure low bacteria counts and reduce the risk of the presence of pathogens in the raw milk.

Ayub et al. Mongar Dzongkhag is one of the potential areas in dairy development in east region. Over the recent years more farmers are devoting their farming activity to dairy production owing to excellent market platform where the products are well absorbed.

There are eighteen registered dairy groups of farmers including two cooperative groups appendices 1 located in different geogs of the Dzongkhag. Five groups among the registered list, they deal in production and sale of fresh milk in different parts of urban and peri urban areas of the geogs and Dzongkhag.

Themnangbi and Jaibab dairy groups are the pioneer among those existing groups who largely depend their livelihood through sale of fresh milk to Mongar town. The production volumes of milk from these two groups range from 80 lt. There is no pasteurization plant in the Dzongkhg, milks are brought to the collection center by individual farmer and is collected from the respective collection centers and directly transported to town and sold from the sale counter.

Private vehicle is deployed to transport their daily milks from the collection centers till sale counter. Milks are transported in bulk cans and no cold storage facilities are provided during the shipment from collection points to sale counter. In this aspect it is very important to assess the effects of parameters on milk quality in different stages of marketing channels and community participation in awareness on quality product produced according to standards.

Personal health and hygiene plays crucial role in terms of reducing contamination. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial load such as somatic cell count and coliform counts commonly found in milk which is closely associated milk quality of raw cow"s milk at different sampling points collected from individual farmers and bulk samples at collection points and sale counter.

The goal of this research has two folds, firstly, to assess and study the influence of farm management and quality assessment of the milk. Secondly to assess variation in chemical composition at different stations and microbial loads between the two milk producing communities of Themnangbi and Jaibab cooperatives. At any stage of milk production and handling processes, properties of fresh milk is highly vulnerable in quality deterioration if required hygienic protocols are not followed and may negatively bear economic loss to the producers.

Unpasteurized milk may contain pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter and disease-causing strains of Escherichia coli, which can lead to serious illness and hazardous to human health. Hedge n. Such products cannot be exported even if there is good demand and surplus production in the country.

Indian milk products have often been rejected in the export market due to unhygienic milking resulting in high microbial count. The quality of milk in India is affected by poor animal health, polluted food and water and unclean surroundings in the farm. It is therefore necessary to emphasize on all these aspects in the near future.

Further, it was observed that most of the milking animals are not regularly screened for diseases and as a result, there is a great danger of some diseases being transmitted to human beings. Milking of cows and buffaloes which are often administered with antibiotics and chemical drugs will also affect the quality of milk.

These problems can be prevented by taking up regular screening of livestock against various diseases. Keeping the animals clean, maintaining clean surroundings, use of clean vessels for milking and storage of milk are essential to maintain the quality of milk.

There is also scope for introducing a small scale bucket type milking machine which is cost effective and helpful to produce clean milk without any direct contact with the farmers and the surroundings Hedge, n. There are several major contributing factors leading to spoilage of fresh milk if right actions are not mediated to ensure quality at the given period of time.

One of the leading problems in milk quality impurities is responsible from farm management failure to keep the milking animals detected through udder and teats infection. Godden, et al. Some factors affecting this risk may include level of milk production at dry off, rapidity of udder involution, teat end condition, and level of contamination of teat ends.

A major factor allowing the invasion of pathogens into the gland during the dry period may be that there is often a significant delay in the formation of a complete keratin plug in the streak canal. To draw assessment result and to test the hypothesis, milk samples from 42 milking cows from the two villages were assessed through laboratory examination and repeated the sample collection frequencies for three consecutive. Milk quality variation sampling from different locations of collection points, and milk sale counter for bulk sampling and individual household level were carried out o determine influencing factors contributing to lower quality milk and microbial load borne in the raw milk at individual farmer.

Social information related to milk yield, production and quality enhancement were addressed through questionnaire survey. Problem statementDespite an opportunity prevail for fresh milk venture into the urban marketing by the dairy group farmers; there are some standing bottlenecks for milk vendors in the existing system.

Shorter shelf life of fresh milk results into spoilage if not sold faster. This problem is compounded by poor storage facilities in milk depot. The key issues distinguished and observed in the present system are:Although two groups of dairy group farmers generate economic benefit from sale of fresh milk, however there are certain hurdles in marketing chain, the groups do not have marketing refrigerated Van to transport milk from source to sale counter.

No bulk storage tanks in either of the groups collection points to store evening milk to store the at the collection As indicated in above statements, this study is aimed to assess some critical loopholes in milk quality marketing chain correlated to domestic production size and quality management practices adopted by the groups. RationaleDairy development in Bhutan has gained much advancement in terms of genetic improvement and volume of production aspects as well.

There are several small holder dairy farmers group emerging in the country with successful entrepreneurship story. Given with nature of group formed, activities largely include collection of processed products either at household level and brought to the sale counter. Some groups are established with mini dairy processing unit wherein milk collected from the members and interested milk supplier are collected to the processing plant and manufactured at the unit.

Selling of farm produced fresh dairy milk is gaining popularity among the consumers in the country. Most of the local consumers prefer to buy freshly farm produced raw milk rather than tetra packed pasteurized commercial milk. Demand for fresh milk in the local market mainly in the commercial hub cities and neighbouring boarders are unable to meet the market requirement. It is indicative that the market has full potential of absorbing the commodity at desired price with assured quality and food safety measures are met as per the standard.

Further the low output, high distribution and marketing costs, competition from the imported dairy products with well-established and reliable distribution system are imposing restrictions on local products despite the freedom of tax and price control. General research question and hypothesisIs there any variation of raw milk quality collected from various collection points and main sale counter? Is composition and quality of raw milk affected by microbial loads present in milk at distance and different location of the existing groups?

ObjectivesThe main objectives of this research study were as follows:-To assess quality of fresh milk and variation in composition contents at different collection points and outlet counter. Scope and limitationThe aim and purpose of this study was to explore sufficient information and data from intended dairy cooperatives and farmers group of two villages in Mongar Dzongkhag.

Major scope of these existing dairy groups is they can improve quality of fresh milk and increased production volume.

Increase in industrial activities and population in the region are some of the assured markets for fresh milk in the region. There was certain limitation encountered during the study periods. Sample volumes were limited in numbers due to limited milking cows in the groups. Moreover, study period was commenced from mid winter January where production of fresh milk in either of the villages was scarced.

There was limited sample volumes coverage during the study period and could not obtain expected sample size. Transportation of collected samples and larger individual coliform count could not be conducted due to limited manpower and laboratory resources.

The main limitation of these dairy groups was limited cold storage facilities at collection centers and lack of proper transportation and distant location of collection center in Jaibab.

Chirlaque stated that people have been using cow"s milk since 6,, B. S ince 14 th century it has gained immense popularity as one of the healthiest foods. Milk meets the basic requirements of the body.

It is highly beneficial in the growth and development of bones. It is also helpful in fighting against diseases like gout, kidney stones, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine headaches and others.

Considering the innumerable health benefits of cow"s milk, knowing about its nutritional value will be highly helpful Pandey and Voskuil Grimaud et al.

In the first place the composition depends on the species of animal. But also within a species we find big differences between the breeds and between individual animals within a breed. The composition might even change from day to day, depending on feeding and climate. During one milking the first s t r i p s o f milk differs from the last milk drops.

Average figures of the composition of milk from cows, sheep and goats are given in Table 1. In the study of Lujerdean et al. Microbial activityThe major group of bacteria in milk is the group of lactic acid bacteria. These are able to use the lactose in the milk and to convert it into lactic acid. The most important family in this group is the Streptococcus lactis. They multiply and grow very fast when the milk is kept at ambient temperatures after milking.

They produced lactic acid causes the natural souring of milk. The primary source of these bacteria is the environment: air, dust, dirty equipment and operators, etc. One of the primary sources affecting milk quality at the source is from poor management return from herdmanship at the herd or at barn. Mubarak et al. Many diseases are transmissible via milk products. Traditionally raw or unpasteurised milk had been a major vehicle for transmission of pathogens.

The health of dairy herd and milking conditions basically determine the milk quality. Another source of contamination by microorganisms is unclean teats. The use of unclean milking and transport equipments also contribute to the poor quality milk. Further, the study indicated that Mubarack et al; dominant microbial flora associated with raw milk samples in and around Coimbatore District were in the order of Lactobacillus sp.

Whey proteins and their antimicrobial properties in donkey milk: a brief review

The dairy products industry is going toward safe milk and its products in the food market. The aim of this work is focused on milk microbial contamination and its impacts on milk production and dairy industry with their implications in milk product quality, food-borne diseases from raw milk, and unpasteurized milk by food-borne pathogen microbial contamination and milk and dairy product spoilage. The microbial milk contamination source comes from herd hygiene and health status, mastitis prevalence, production environment, and milking parlor and milk conserving practices in dairy farm. Moreover, these facts are implicated in milk quality and milk spoilage and unsafe dairy products. The milk production system and the dairy plant operations keep track in pasteurized milk and fresh dairy products reviewing the traceability in field situational diagnosis report. The objective of the dairy industry is to maintain productivity and competitiveness in a growing milk commerce, which is demanding a large volume of milk and a wide range of dairy products in the food market and the preferences of the final food consumer with remarkable differences according to patterns of consumer behavior by demographic categories, culture, and socioeconomic variations in the human population in the food market [ 1 , 2 ].

Assessment of Raw Cow Milk Quality in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Pemba Island Zanzibar, Tanzania

Gwandu, H. Nonga, R. Mdegela, A. Katakweba, T.

Microbial multidrug resistance MDR is a growing threat to public health mostly because it makes the fight against microorganisms that cause lethal infections ever less effective. Thus, the surveillance on MDR microorganisms has recently been strengthened, taking into account the control of antibiotic abuse as well as the mechanisms underlying the transfer of antibiotic genes ARGs among microbiota naturally occurring in the environment. Indeed, ARGs are not only confined to pathogenic bacteria, whose diffusion in the clinical field has aroused serious concerns, but are widespread in saprophytic bacterial communities such as those dominating the food industry.

Veterinary Medicine International

Сьюзан не могла не восхититься умом Танкадо. Не открыв своего алгоритма, он доказал АНБ, что тот не поддается дешифровке. Стратмор протянул Сьюзан газетную вырезку. Это был перевод рекламного сообщения Никкей симбун, японского аналога Уолл-стрит джорнал, о том, что японский программист Энсей Танкадо открыл математическую формулу, с помощью которой можно создавать не поддающиеся взлому шифры. Формула называется Цифровая крепость, говорилось в заметке, и доступна для ознакомления в Интернете. Программист намеревался выставить ее на аукционе и отдать тому, кто больше всех заплатит. Далее в заметке сообщалось, что, хотя алгоритм вызвал громадный интерес в Японии, несколько американских производителей программного обеспечения, прослышавших о Цифровой крепости, считают эту информацию нелепой - чем-то вроде обещания превратить свинец в золото.

Скажи, Танкадо действительно умер от сердечного приступа или же его ликвидировал кто-то из ваших людей. - Ты совсем ослепла. Как ты не понимаешь, что я ко всему этому непричастен. Развяжи. Развяжи, пока не явились агенты безопасности.

Выслушай меня внимательно, - попросил Стратмор. Сьюзан была ошеломлена. ТРАНСТЕКСТ еще никогда не сталкивался с шифром, который не мог бы взломать менее чем за один час. Обычно же открытый текст поступал на принтер Стратмора за считанные минуты.

 Вы сможете его найти? - спросил Стратмор. - Конечно. Почему вы не позвонили мне раньше. - Честно говоря, - нахмурился Стратмор, - я вообще не собирался этого делать.

Родившийся и выросший в Лиссабоне, он выполнял задания агентства по всей Европе. Его ни разу не удалось разоблачить, указав на Форт- Мид. Единственная беда - Халохот глухой, с ним нельзя связаться по телефону.

Должно быть что-то самое простое. Техник в оперативном штабе начал отсчет: - Пять. Четыре.

Они не реагировали. - Выключите ТРАНСТЕКСТ! - потребовала. Остановка поисков ключа Цифровой крепости высвободила бы достаточно энергии для срабатывания дверных замков. - Успокойся, Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку ей на плечо. Это умиротворяющее прикосновение вывело Сьюзан из оцепенения.

После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку.

Не было ни страха, ни ощущения своей значимости - исчезло. Он остался нагим - лишь плоть и кости перед лицом Господа. Я человек, - подумал. И с ироничной усмешкой вспомнил: - Без воска. Беккер стоял с закрытыми глазами, а человек в очках в металлической оправе приближался к .

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