thermal expansion of solids liquids and gases pdf writer

Thermal Expansion Of Solids Liquids And Gases Pdf Writer

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There are three physical properties of fluids that are particularly important: density, viscosity, and surface tension. Each of these will be defined and viewed briefly in terms of molecular concepts, and their dimensions will be examined in terms of mass, length, and time M, L, and T. The physical properties depend primarily on the particular fluid.

From a homemade thermometer to knitting needles that grow: here are some simple but fun experiments for primary-school pupils to investigate what happens to solids, liquids and gases when we heat them. Why do elephants squirt water onto their backs?

What is the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics?

This chapter builds on the introduction to the arrangement of particles in materials that was covered in the chapter 'Solids, Liquids and Gases' of the Gr. In Gr. These were grouped together and the generic term 'particle' was used to refer to these fundamental building blocks of matter.

This was the first introduction to the concept of matter particles. The behaviour of particles in each of the three different states of matter was used to explain the macroscopic properties of each state. In this chapter these ideas are further expanded, using the particle model of matter. Important links are made to new concepts such as diffusion, changes of state, density, expansion, contraction and gas pressure. The particle model of matter will be a strong theme throughout the rest of the Physical Sciences curriculum, especially if learners continue through to Gr.

Hypothesising, observing, identifying variables, recording information, comparing, interpreting information. Predicting, hypothesising, planning investigation, drawing and labelling, observing, recording, analysing information. Hypothesising, identifying variables, planning investigation, doing investigation, observing, recording information, interpreting information.

Can you remember learning that matter can exist in three different states? What are the three states called? Can you remember the properties of the different states of matter? Discuss this in your class. Look at the following diagram of the states of matter to help you.

Remember to take some notes as you discuss in class. Get learners to discuss this briefly in small groups and draw a table on the board to summarise learners' ideas. Out of the class, three groups could be chosen randomly, and each group could say what they know about one of the states. Some of the properties that learners should already be familiar with are listed in the following table:. In this chapter we are going to review what we know about solids, liquids and gases. We are going to learn about a scientific model that can be used to describe how the particles in all three states behave.

This model is called the particle model of matter and it will help us understand much more about the properties of solids, liquids and gases. Let's get started! In the previous chapter we learnt that scientists use models when they want to describe things that are difficult to understand. We discussed a model of the atom that helped us to imagine what atoms look like.

Theories are similar to models. They explain scientific phenomena things and events that can be described and explained in scientific terms using pictures and words. The particle model describes matter in a very specific way. It describes four important aspects of matter:. This links back to Gr. In Term 3, Energy and Change, these concepts will be defined more formally as kinetic energy movement energy and potential energy stored energy.

It is very important to note the misconception here that there is 'air' in between the particles. This is NOT true. The spaces between the particles are empty - called a vacuum. Take note to make sure you do not introduce this misconception.

If you need to, turn back to chapter 1 to revise the terms atom, element, compound and molecule and how they relate. The particle model of matter is one of the most useful scientific models because it describes matter in all three states. Understanding how the particles of matter behave is vital if we hope to understand science!

The model also helps us to understand what happens to the particles when matter changes from one state to another. The following diagram shows different changes of state, as well as which processes are the reverse of each other. Melting and freezing are the reverse processes of each other and so are evaporation boiling and condensation. Under special circumstances, a solid can change directly into a gas without melting first. This process is known as sublimation and its reverse when a gas changes directly into a solid without condensing first is called deposition.

This is because they now have more kinetic energy. This introduces the next topic and how we explain the changes of state using the particle model of matter. We will use the model to look at each of these changes more closely.

But first, we will look at how the model describes each state of matter. We can use the particle model to help us understand the behaviour of each of the states of matter. We are going to look at each state in turn. There is one very important thing to remember when we consider the different states of matter.

For any matter, the individual particles of that matter are exactly the same in all three states, solid, liquid and gas. It is the behaviour of the particles that changes in each state. This video shows us the different ways that particles behave in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. Solids keep their shape and cannot be compressed. Let us see if the particle model can help us understand why solids behave in this way.

In a solid, the particles are packed close to each other in fixed positions. They are locked into place, and this explains why solids have a fixed shape.

Look at the following images of sodium chloride table salt. Do you remember the formula for sodium chloride? Sodium chloride is NaCl. Ask learners why they think the chloride atoms are the bigger purple atoms and the sodium atoms are the smaller yellow ones in the submicroscopic view in the table.

The colour does not make a difference, as long as all the same atoms are the same colour. However, the sizes show that chloride atoms are bigger than sodium atoms as can be seen from their arrangement on the Periodic Table. Point this out to learners if you have a Periodic Table stuck up in the class or they can turn to the front of their books to look at the table there. Can you see how the chloride atoms purple alternate with the sodium atoms yellow in a fixed arrangement?

Take a good look at the picture of the particles in a solid table salt above. You will see that they are packed in a regular arrangement. There are very small spaces between the particles in a solid. Particles are held together by forces of attraction. In solids, these forces are strong enough to hold the particles firmly in position.

Does that mean the particles in a solid do not move at all? The particles in a solid move a little bit. They vibrate in their fixed positions. The more energy the particles have, the faster and more strongly they vibrate. Do you see how we have used the particle model of matter to explain the properties of solids that we can observe? For example, the particles in solids are closely packed and have strong forces between them explains why solids have a fixed shape and you cannot compress them.

An important characteristic of liquids is that they flow. They fill containers they are poured into. Liquids are also not very compressible. How can these properties be explained? In the liquid state, particles do not have fixed positions.

They move about freely, but they stay close together because the forces of attraction between them are quite strong, but not as strong as in solids. Have you noticed how a liquid always takes the shape of the container it is in? Within the liquid, the particles slip and slide past each other. This is why liquid flows. Their particles are free to move around, filling the spaces left by other particles.

Look at the image of the juice being poured. Let's zoom in and have a look at what the particles are doing as the juice is poured. The particles in a liquid have small spaces between them, but not as small as in solids. The particles in a liquid are loosely arranged which means they do not have a fixed shape like solids, but they rather take the shape of the container they are in. The speed at which the particles move around inside the liquid depends on the energy of the particles.

When we heat a liquid, we are giving the particles more energy and speeding them up. Gases spread out quickly to fill all the space available to them.

Think of when you blow up a balloon. The air that you blow into the balloon fills up the whole balloon. A gas will fill the entire space that is available to it. This is because the particles in a gas have no particular arrangement. Gases do not have a fixed shape.

Thermal expansion

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with some third body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other. Thermal equilibrium means that when two bodies are brought into contact with each other and separated by a barrier that is permeable to heat, there will be no transfer of heat from one to the other. This says in essence that the three bodies are all the same temperature. When the laws of thermodynamics were originally established, there were only three. In the early 18th century, though, scientists realized that another law was needed to complete the set.

Given a large number of molecules, the microscopic behaviour averages out into seemingly constant material properties, such as thermal conductivity, heat.

What Are Five Properties of Gases?

Considering the increasing pollution and exploitation of fossil energy resources, the implementation of new energy concepts is essential for our future industrialized society. Renewable sources have to replace current energy technologies. This shift, however, will not be an easy task.

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Thermal expansion , the general increase in the volume of a material as its temperature is increased.

The effect of heat: simple experiments with solids, liquids and gases

Density is the ratio of the mass to the volume of a substance:. Specific weight is the ratio of the weight to the volume of a substance:. At the bottom of the page there are some examples of calculations using hot and cold air. The calculator below can be used to calculate the air density and specific weight at given temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Air density at ambient temperature and pressure:.

This chapter builds on the introduction to the arrangement of particles in materials that was covered in the chapter 'Solids, Liquids and Gases' of the Gr. In Gr. These were grouped together and the generic term 'particle' was used to refer to these fundamental building blocks of matter. This was the first introduction to the concept of matter particles. The behaviour of particles in each of the three different states of matter was used to explain the macroscopic properties of each state. In this chapter these ideas are further expanded, using the particle model of matter.

Expand Contract

This paper describes the use of Fiber Bragg Grating FBG sensors to investigate the thermomechanical properties of saline ice. FBG sensors allowed laboratory measurements of thermal expansion of ice samples with a range of different sizes and geometries. A model is formulated under which structural transformations in the ice, caused by temperature changes, can lead to brine transfer from closed pockets to permeable channels, and vice versa. This model is compared to experimental data. Further, in experiments with confined floating ice, heating as well as thermal expansion due to vertical migration of liquid brine, caused by under-ice water pressure, was observed.

Внутренние ошибки программы не являлись единственными причинами сбоя, потому что иногда в действие вступали внешние силы - скачки напряжения, попавшие на платы частички пыли, повреждение проводов. Поскольку за техникой Третьего узла следили самым тщательным образом, она даже не рассматривала такую возможность. Сьюзан встала и быстро подошла к громадному книжному шкафу с техническими руководствами, взяла с полки справочник с прошитым проволочной спиралью корешком и принялась его листать.

Он подумал о Сьюзан. Но тут же в голову пришли слова Стратмора: Найдите кольцо. Беккер в отчаянии плюхнулся на скамейку и задумался о том, что делать. Что же предпринять. ГЛАВА 25 Городская больница закрылась для посетителей.

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