similarities between common law and civil law pdf

Similarities Between Common Law And Civil Law Pdf

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In the United States, there are two bodies of law whose purpose is to deter or punish serious wrongdoing or to compensate the victims of such wrongdoing. Criminal law deals with behavior that is or can be construed as an offense against the public, society, or the state—even if the immediate victim is an individual.

Legal systems around the world vary greatly, but they usually follow civil law or common law. In common law, past legal precedents or judicial rulings are used to decide cases at hand. Under civil law, codified statutes and ordinances rule the land. Some countries like South Africa use a combination of civil and common law.

Judges and the law

Under Sources of Law we explained that some countries will apply greater weight to certain sources of law than others, and that some will put more emphasis on judicial decisions than others. There are two main types of legal system in the world, with most countries adopting features from one or other into their own legal systems, Common Law and Civil law.

Concept of "Concession" as Understood in France - summary. Countries following a common law system are typically those that were former British colonies or protectorates, including the United States. Judicial decisions are binding — decisions of the highest court can generally only be overturned by that same court or through legislation;.

Extensive freedom of contract - few provisions are implied into the contract by law although provisions seeking to protect private consumers may be implied ;. A common law system is less prescriptive than a civil law system. A government may therefore wish to enshrine protections of its citizens in specific legislation related to the infrastructure program being contemplated. For example, it may wish to prohibit the service provider from cutting off the water or electricity supply of bad payers or may require that documents related to the transaction be disclosed under a freedom of information act.

There may also be legal requirements to imply into a contract in equal bargaining provisions where one party is in a much stronger bargaining position than the other.

There are few provisions implied into a contract under the common law system — it is therefore important to set out ALL the terms governing the relationship between the parties to a contract in the contract itself. This will often result in a contract being longer than one in a civil law country. Countries following a civil law system are typically those that were former French, Dutch, German, Spanish or Portuguese colonies or protectorates, including much of Central and South America.

The civil law system is a codified system of law. It takes its origins from Roman law. Features of a civil law system include:. There is generally a written constitution based on specific codes e. Only legislative enactments are considered binding for all. There is little scope for judge-made law in civil, criminal and commercial courts, although in practice judges tend to follow previous judicial decisions; constitutional and administrative courts can nullify laws and regulations and their decisions in such cases are binding for all.

In some civil law systems, e. Courts specific to the underlying codes — there are therefore usually separate constitutional court, administrative court and civil court systems that opine on consistency of legislation and administrative acts with and interpret that specific code;.

A civil law system is generally more prescriptive than a common law system. However, a government will still need to consider whether specific legislation is required to either limit the scope of a certain restriction to allow a successful infrastructure project, or may require specific legislation for a sector.

This will often result in a contract being shorter than one in a common law country. It is also important to note in the area of infrastructure that certain forms of infrastructure projects are referred to by well-defined legal concepts in civil law jurisdictions. Concessions and Affermage have a definite technical meaning and structure to them that may not be understood or applied in a common law country.

Care should be taken, therefore, in applying these terms loosely. This is further considered under Agreements. Not binding on 3rd parties; however, administrative and constitutional court decisions on laws and regulations binding on all.

In most cases contractual relationship is subject to private law and courts that deal with these issues. Most PPP arrangements e. In many civil law countries a separate administrative law governs PPP arrangements. It is important to seek local legal advice to check whether these rules apply in a particular civil system. It is also important to note that in a civil law jurisdiction, unless the contract specifies that the parties have agreed to arbitration, the contract will be enforced by the administrative courts.

Some of the key administrative rules that apply to delegated management arrangements are listed below. Governments may wish to include these rules in the arrangement, and when they are part of the underlying law it may not be necessary to repeat them in the contract.

But relying on just the underlying law is problematic because the rules are sometimes ambiguous. A contract that takes a background administrative law principle and spells out exactly how it is to be applied will generally be effective. But, changing or overriding an administrative law principle may or may not be legally possible—that would need to be checked. For example, it may not be possible to completely remove the ability of a contracting authority to unilaterally change service standards.

Some civil law codes also contain mandatory notice periods before termination for breach of contract that cannot be avoided or overridden. The contracting authority may, as in France, have the right to modify aspects of the contract unilaterally when it deems the change to be in the public interest. The contracting authority has the right to cancel the contract early although it must compensate the operator.

The operator in an administrative contract may not suspend the execution of its obligations under the contract, even if the contracting authority breaches the contract. Under a concession or affermage-lease, the operator is deemed to assume duties relating to operating a public service, even beyond those included in the contract such as investing to address increasing demand or adapting to new technologies.

For example, when the contracting authority imposes a unilateral modification, it must also adjust the financial terms of the arrangement so that the operator is not worse off for example, if the contracting authority required higher service standards, it might also have to allow a higher tariff. Relief under fait du prince requires the following conditions:.

The operator is entitled to compensation for financial difficulties arising from large and unforeseen changes in economic conditions that render execution of the agreement financially hazardous. The adverse economic impact of these events must not only be exceptional but beyond all limits foreseen by the contract.

Unpredictable and uncontrollable events that render the performance of the contract materially impossible exonerate the operator from its obligations. For example, a spill from a chemical factory causing permanent pollution of the only water source would be considered force majeure.

Natural phenomena such as hurricanes and droughts may also be considered force majeure. Where there is a contractual commitment on the Operator to pay a penalty in the case of default and the amount is fixed by contract, under French law a judge may reduce or increase the amount of penalties as long as it is not reduced below the actual damage suffered. Similar concepts exist in Mali, Tunisia and Algeria, for example. Under the French tax code article quarter gross-up clauses related to indemnification of withholding taxes on interest are not to be binding on French tax administration when the debtor is a French entity.

In Common law jurisdictions, such as England and the US, the emphasis when a business gets into financial trouble is on seeking a reorganization rather than a liquidation to keep the business as a going concern eg US, Chapter 11, UK administration. In Civil law jurisdictions the process focuses on liquidation although reform of some bankruptcy laws such as France and OHADA countries is now permitting reorganizations of debtors before they become insolvent.

Common law systems have greater flexibility in granting different types of security over assets - an important feature of PPP arrangements involving commercial funding such as BOTs.

They also have the concept of trusts, which enable security interests to be held by a trustee for lenders in a syndicated loan situation without the need for formal transfer or re-registering of security interests in names of new lenders. Civil law does not have such a concept and so security interests generally required to be re-registered in the name of the new lender involving additional registration costs and notarial fees.

France is in the process of introducing a trust law which will resolve a number of these issues. In OHADA countries, however, filings involving public notary are required for formalizing security interests. Search Search. Features of a common law system include: There is not always a written constitution or codified laws; Judicial decisions are binding — decisions of the highest court can generally only be overturned by that same court or through legislation; Extensive freedom of contract - few provisions are implied into the contract by law although provisions seeking to protect private consumers may be implied ; Generally, everything is permitted that is not expressly prohibited by law.

Features of a civil law system include: There is generally a written constitution based on specific codes e. Right of unilateral cancellation The contracting authority has the right to cancel the contract early although it must compensate the operator.

Right to continuity of service The operator in an administrative contract may not suspend the execution of its obligations under the contract, even if the contracting authority breaches the contract. Force majeure Unpredictable and uncontrollable events that render the performance of the contract materially impossible exonerate the operator from its obligations.

Gross-up clauses Under the French tax code article quarter gross-up clauses related to indemnification of withholding taxes on interest are not to be binding on French tax administration when the debtor is a French entity. Bankruptcy In Common law jurisdictions, such as England and the US, the emphasis when a business gets into financial trouble is on seeking a reorganization rather than a liquidation to keep the business as a going concern eg US, Chapter 11, UK administration.

Security interests and syndicated loans Common law systems have greater flexibility in granting different types of security over assets - an important feature of PPP arrangements involving commercial funding such as BOTs. Significant influence in some civil law jurisdictions. Extensive — only a few provisions implied by law into contractual relationship. More limited — a number of provisions implied by law into contractual relationship.

What Is the Difference Between Criminal Law and Civil Law?

Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study. Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available. Having explored the origins and development of the common law and its characteristics, the final part of this course will compare and contrast the common law with civil legal systems. The terms common law system and civil law system are used to distinguish two distinct legal systems and approaches to law.

The legal systems of different countries around the world typically follow either the common law or the civil law , or, in some cases, a combination of the two. Broadly speaking, a common law system is based on the concept of judicial precedent. Judges take an active role in shaping the law here, since the decisions a court makes are then used as a precedent for future cases. Whilst common law systems have laws that are created by legislators, it is up to judges to rely on precedents set by previous courts to interpret those laws and apply them to individual cases. In certain common law countries, courts such as the Supreme Court of the United States have the ability to strike down laws that were passed by legislators if those laws are deemed unconstitutional in violation of federal law. By contrast, in the United Kingdom, the concept of parliamentary sovereignty means that legislation can only be amended or revoked by Parliament, not the courts. Civil law systems, on the other hand, place much less emphasis on precedent than they do on the codification of the law.


common law of the realm that set of traditions, practices, pre- cedents, rules laws. Far-reaching similarities exist within this group not only among the civil.


Civil Law vs. Common Law

Common law is a body of unwritten laws based on legal precedents established by the courts. The U. A precedent, known as stare decisis , is a history of judicial decisions which form the basis of evaluation for future cases.

January 28, by Piyali Syam.

Common Law

 Верно… - Стратмор задумался.  - На какое-то время. - Что это. Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит. Но технология не стоит на месте. Производители программного обеспечения исходят из того, что рано или поздно появятся компьютеры типа ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Технология развивается в геометрической профессии, и рано или поздно алгоритмы, которыми пользуется общество, перестанут быть надежными.

Стратмор наклонился и, зачерпнув воды, смыл со своих рук частицы плоти Чатрукьяна. Его мечта о Цифровой крепости рухнула, и он полностью отдавал себе в этом отчет. Теперь у него осталась только Сьюзан. Впервые за много лет он вынужден был признать, что жизнь - это не только служение своей стране и профессиональная честь. Я отдал лучшие годы жизни своей стране и исполнению своего долга.

Comparison chart

Неужели Большой Брат следит за тем, что делается в кладовке. Большой Брат, или Брат, как его обычно называла Мидж, - это аппарат Сентрекс-333, размещавшийся в крохотном, похожем на подсобку кабинетике рядом с директорскими апартаментами. Большой Брат был частью мира, в котором царила Мидж. Он получал информацию со 148 камер кабельного телевидения, 399 электронных дверей, 377 устройств прослушивания телефонов и еще 212 жучков, установленных по всему комплексу АНБ. Директора АН Б дорого заплатили за осознание того факта, что двадцать шесть тысяч сотрудников не только огромная ценность, но и источник больших неприятностей. Все крупные провалы в сфере безопасности в истории агентства происходили внутри этого здания.

 Убедительно.  - Сьюзан нахмурилась.  - Итак, вы полагаете, что Северная Дакота - реальное лицо. - Боюсь, что. И мы должны его найти.

 Коммандер… сэр, я… извините за беспокойство, но монитор… я запустил антивирус и… - Фил, Фил, - нехарактерным для него ласковым тоном сказал Стратмор.  - Потише и помедленнее. Что случилось. По голосу Стратмора, мягкому и спокойному, никто никогда не догадался бы, что мир, в котором он жил, рушится у него на глазах. Он отступил от двери и отошел чуть в сторону, пропуская Чатрукьяна в святая святых Третьего узла.

What is the Difference Between Common Law and Civil Law?

 - Однако мы можем выиграть.

Производители программного обеспечения исходят из того, что рано или поздно появятся компьютеры типа ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Технология развивается в геометрической профессии, и рано или поздно алгоритмы, которыми пользуется общество, перестанут быть надежными. Понадобятся лучшие алгоритмы, чтобы противостоять компьютерам завтрашнего дня. - Такова Цифровая крепость.

Ему понадобилось всего несколько мгновений, чтобы принять решение. Фонтейн схватил со стола заседаний трубку внутреннего телефона и набрал номер шифровалки. В трубке послышались короткие гудки. В сердцах он швырнул трубку на рычаг. - Черт! - Фонтейн снова схватил трубку и набрал номер мобильника Стратмора.

За конторкой сидела только одна секретарша, норовившая избавиться от назойливых пациентов. Беккер застыл в дверях, не зная, как поступить. Необходимо было срочно что-то придумать.

В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ послышался треск, и Стратмор приступил к решению стоявшей перед ним задачи - вырубить электричество. Рубильник был расположен за фреоновыми насосами слева от тела Чатрукьяна, и Стратмор сразу же его .

Колокола звонили где-то совсем рядом, очень громко. Беккер чувствовал жжение в боку, но кровотечение прекратилось. Он старался двигаться быстрее, знал, что где-то позади идет человек с пистолетом. Беккер смешался с толпой прихожан и шел с низко опущенной головой. Собор был уже совсем рядом, он это чувствовал.

Свет от фары пробежал по цементным стенам. - В главный банк данных попал вирус, - сказал Бринкерхофф. - Я знаю, - услышала Сьюзан собственный едва слышный голос.

Она терпеть не могла, когда он называл ее Сью. Вообще-то она ничего не имела против этого имени, но Хейл был единственным, кто его использовал, и это было ей неприятно. - Почему бы мне не помочь тебе? - предложил Хейл. Он подошел ближе.  - Я опытный диагност.

Он считал себя большим знатоком всего, что способствовало укреплению здоровья, и утверждал, что оливковое масло очищает кишечник. Он вечно навязывал что-то коллегам, например морковный сок, и убеждал их, что нет ничего важнее безукоризненного состояния кишечника. Хейл поставил масло на место и направился к своему компьютеру, располагавшемуся прямо напротив рабочего места Сьюзан.

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5 Comments

  1. Frigolupam

    Under Sources of Law we explained that some countries will apply greater weight to certain sources of law than others, and that some will put more emphasis on judicial decisions than others.

    05.06.2021 at 07:08 Reply
  2. Raimon J.

    Civil law is a legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

    05.06.2021 at 13:10 Reply
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  4. Christine L.

    Although those hundreds of systems differ greatly, their roots and differences can be traced to two distinct sources: the English common law, which has evolved over a millennium, and the Napoleonic Code, which dawned at the turn of the 19 th century.

    07.06.2021 at 11:54 Reply
  5. Stephanie P.

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